Hot Spots (Or Red Rashes With Fever). Yasmin Tyler-Hill, M.D. Clinical Assistant Professor Department of Pediatrics Morehouse School of Medicine. Objectives. Recognize rashes that are included in the differential diagnosis of Rheumatologic diseases
Yasmin Tyler-Hill, M.D.
Clinical Assistant Professor
Department of Pediatrics
Morehouse School of Medicine
This 8 year old girl developed upper respiratory symptoms with fever, cough, tachypnea, and malaise several days before a purulent conjunctivitis, erosive oral mucositis, and blistering skin rash. The cutaneous lesions were relatively limited, and the oral lesions and conjunctivitis began to improve 3 to 4 days later. Rapid diagnostic tests for Mycoplasma pneumoniae were positive. Interestingly, her mother had a history of pneumonia treated with oral antibiotics several weeks earlier, and her sister developed a cough and mild but similar rash several days after the patient was hospitalized.
Purulent conjunctivitis with edematous lids and conjunctival hemorrhage, cheek and chin vesicles, intranasal and lip erosions
Diffuse red macules many with central necrotic bulla and erosions and associated conjunctivitis and mucositis
Diffuse red papules and plaques some with central necrotic bullae, erosions of the conjunctivae and oral mucosa
A diffuse scarlatiniform eruption developed on this 4-year-old boy who demonstrates his strawberry red tongue and red and fine scaly papular rash. A throat culture was positive for Group A beta-hemoplytic Streptococcus
A healthy 6-year-old boy developed a diffuse papular eruption in association with headache, sore throad, and fever. His throat culture was positive for Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, and he improved within several days on oral amoxacillin.
This 4-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis was treated for right sided mastitis with topical mupirocin ointment. He subsequently developed a disseminated red sand paperlike eruption. A throat culture was positive for Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, and he was treated with oral erythromycin because of a history of penecillin allergy. He subsequently developed widespread desquamation with the most prominent lesions on the hands and feet.
This 8-year-old girl developed a red papular eruption on her lower extremities and a disseminated sandpaper-like rash 3 days after the onset of a sore throat with a positive Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus culture. She also had a strawberry tongue with a white membrane and prominent red papillae poking through the coating.
This healthy 10-year-old girl developed purpuric papules consistent with a leukocytoclastic vasculitis on her distal extremities several weeks after a viral upper respiratory infection. She had migratory swelling of the hands and feet and intermittent crampy abdominal pain. Her urinalysis and blood pressure were normal. A skin biopsy from a lesion on the top of the foot showed a leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and direct immunofluorescence demonstrated deposition of IgA around dermal blood vessels.
A 6-year-old boy comes to your office because of migratory painand swelling of his joints. Three days ago he experienced painand swelling of his right hand and knee. The following day,the pain and swelling had spread to his right ankle. He complainsnow only of right ankle and lower back pain. The joints werewarm, but no erythema was noted. The child has been healthy, withno history of fever, runny nose, cough, vomiting, sore throat,or diarrhea. He was bitten by a tick 4 months ago. There isno family history of arthritis.
Physical examination reveals a friendly boy in no obvious distress. Hisvital signs, including blood pressure, are normal, as are theresults of his entire examination, except for marked swelling,erythema, and tenderness of the right ankle, which has limitedrange of motion. There is tenderness on palpation of the sacroiliacjoints, but no obvious swelling or limitation of motion is appreciated.There are no rashes.
Laboratory testing reveals: white blood cell count, 13.2 x 109/L (13.2x 103/mcL); hemoglobin, 8.93 mmol/L (14.4 g/dL); platelet count,306 x 109/L (306 x 103/mcL); erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 11mm/hr; normal findings on urinalysis; negative throat culture, anti-streptolysinO titer, anti-DNAse B titer, Lyme titer, mononucleosis test, andEpstein-Barr titers. Radiographs of the right ankle and lumbosacral spineshow no bony abnormalities.
Upon his return to the office, the boy was noted to have a purple, papularrash on his buttocks and lower extremities and was experiencingsevere abdominal pain and swelling of his left elbow, a constellationof findings characteristic of Henoch-Schöenlein purpura(HSP).
A healthy 14 month old developed a red papular morbilliform eruption after 3 days of high fever without a source. The rash begin at his head and spread distally. The rash cleared in the same manner. The asymptomatic rash appeared as he deffervesced and lasted less than 24 hours.
A 9-month-old girl is brought to the clinic because of worseningfever and rash. Three days ago, she developed a fever of 38.8°C(101.8°F) and pinpoint flesh-colored "bumps" on the abdomen.The rash soon turned red and quickly spread to the entire body,but it was not pruritic. The following day she developed clearrhinorrhea and a cough severe enough to cause posttussive emesis. Thefever persisted for the next 2 days despite administration of ibuprofen.The increasing irritability and fever of 40.0°C (104°F) promptedher mother to bring her to the clinic. The child’s appetiteis poor, but she does drink, and her urine output has not diminished. Thereis no diarrhea. Her mother denies administering any medication otherthan ibuprofen. The child has been healthy previously, and her motheris unaware of any known illness contacts. She has received herprimary immunization series for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis,polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B. Of note,she and her family traveled cross-country by automobile 2 weeksago.
Physical examination reveals an irritable but consolable infantwho has a red rash consisting of raised spots and flat, confluentpatches (Fig. 1 ). She has a temperature of 38.3°C (101.8°F),respiratory rate of 42 breaths/min, and pulse of 152 beats/min.Discrete, intensely red, raised lesions extend over the face(Fig. 2 ), trunk, and extremities. Flat, red spots appear onthe palmar surfaces (Fig. 3 ). No blisters or small, purplehemorrhages of the skin are present. Examination of the headshows conjunctival injection without discharge; clear rhinorrhea; twograyish-white, pinpoint, elevated spots on the right buccalmucosa; and palpable, mobile lymph nodes in the posterior cervicalregions. Auscultation of the chest demonstrates bilateral clearbreath sounds and normal S1 and S2 heart sounds without a murmur.Findings on abdominal, genitourinary, and neurologic examinationsare unremarkable.
This 9 year old boy developed a red partially blanching papular eruption on his hands and feet including his palms and soles that progressed to the trunk over 3 days. He had a severe headache, high fever, arthralgias and myalgias. His mother, who remembered removing a wood tick from her son's scalp 10 days earlier also developed a rash, fever, and headache.
An ill appearing toddler with high fever and a diffuse red rash and edema suddenly developed diffuse petechiae and ecchymoses. Laboratory studies showed a prolonged bleeding time, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neutropenia. After a prolonged course in the pediatric intensive care unit, he recovered uneventfully with the exception of necrosis of the tips of several toes.
Large (8 m body) 8-legged arachnid; black with brown leather pattern on body and legs
In the United States the most common vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii include Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick), Dermacentor andersoni (wood tick), and Amblyomma americanum
Theoklis Zaoutis and Joel D. KleinEnterovirus InfectionsPediatr. Rev., Jun 1998; 19: 183 - 191.References