History Goes to Hollywood A Film Based US History Curriculum Lauren Ashley Waters, Robin Richards, Ashley Powell, Tiffany Thomas
Themes in this Curriculum • Conflict- focus on the major conflicts associated with each Era • Change- focus on the changes in people, places and society over the course of these eras
Era 1- Three Worlds Meet (pre 1620)Timeline- world events 1. 1581 Akbar, Mughal Emperor of India, conquered Afghanistan. (TL-MB, 1988, p.23) • 2. 1582 Feb 24, Pope Gregory XIII issued a papal bull, or edict, outlining his calendar reforms. The old Julian Calendar had an error rate of one day in every 128 years. This was corrected in the Gregorian Calendar of Pope Gregory XIII, but Protestant countries did not accept the change till 1700 and later. [see 1552 and Oct 4, 1582] (HFA, '96, p.22)(TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(HN, 6/7/98)(SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)(AP, 2/24/02) • 3. 1583 Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598), Japan’s unifier and folk hero, laid the foundation for Osaka Castle. It was completed in 1587. Civil war and fire destroyed the castle several times. The castle was rebuilt in 1931 and refurbished in 1997. (Hem, 9/04, p.41) • 4. 1598 Apr 13, King Henry IV of France endorsed the Edict of Nantes, which granted political rights to French Huguenots. (The edict was abrogated in 1685 by King Louis XIV, who declared France entirely Catholic again.)
Era 1- Georgia events • 16th Century - Creek controlled almost all of Georgia • 1526 - September 29 - First colony on mainland America is established by Lucas Vazques de Ayllon, believed location of the settlement to be on Georgia's Sapelo Island • 1540 - Spaniard Hernando de Soto explores Georgia • 1566 - Forts were built along the Atlantic coast, including the first in Georgia on St. Catherine's Island
The New World (2005)- Modern retelling of the classic story of Pocahontas and John Smith during the early days of the Virginia colony in the 1600s Era 1 Film
Why this film? • The case study of The New World film was chosen because of the ability for students to see the conflicts between two cultures (the explorers and the Native Americans). The conflicts of the settlement in the foreign land also arise for the explorers because of diseases and the struggles to be pioneers settling Jamestown. The theme of change is demonstrated when each culture has to adapt and evolve to accept each other and the new ways of living. The Indians were introduced to guns and the Jamestown settlers were introduced to new farming methods.
Other Era 1 films to consider… • The Crucible • 1492: Conquest of Paradise
Era 2- Colonialization and SettlementTimeline- World • . 1665 • Great Plague in London kills 75,000. • 2. 1666 • Great Fire of London. Molière's Misanthrope. • 3. 1667 • Milton's Paradise Lost, widely considered the greatest epic poem in English. • 4. 1683 • War of European powers against the Turks (to 1699). Vienna withstands three-month Turkish siege; high point of Turkish advance in Europe.
Era 2- Timeline- US Events • 1650 - Cherokee Nation had successfully migrated southward, occupying more than 40,000 square miles in the southern Appalachian Mountains. • 1663 - March 24 - Charles II delivers the 1629 charter to the Earl of Claredon, the Duke of Albemarle, Sir George Carteret and five other favorites. • 1665 - July 10 - Second charter extends the bounds of the grant to 36° 30' and 29° N Lat. This is approximately from the northern border of North Carolina (36° 34') and Daytona Beach, Florida • 1733- The colony of Georgia is established by royal charter and settled in Savannah by James Oglethorpe on February 1, 1733
The Scarlet Letter (1979 miniseries) Classic retelling of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s tale of Hester Prynne, Puritan society and the punishments inflicted upon sinners Era 2 Film
Why this film? • The Scarlet Letter is based off of the book by Nathaniel Hawthorne. This story is excellent at telling how religion ruled the New England Colonies. It also shows how conflict can arise and how change needs to take place. It allows students to study the conflicts that arise when humans are trying to stay close to God through never “sinning” (doing wrong). It shows the power struggles between the established religion and the common parishioner.
Other Era 2 films to consider… • Johnny Tremain • The Last of the Mohicans
Era 3- Revolution and the New Nation- Timeline- World • 1772 • Joseph Priestley and Daniel Rutherford independently discover nitrogen. Partition of Poland—in 1772, 1793, and 1795, Austria, Prussia, and Russia divide land and people of Poland, end its independence. • 1773 Jul 21, Pope Clement XIV abolished the Jesuit order. He disbanded, defrocked, and stripped them of their sustenance. They were ignored by other orders and denounced as schemers and plotters. The Jesuits finally regained respectability in 1814after flourishing underground. (HN, 7/21/98)(MC, 7/21/02) • 1774 Jul 16, Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji, ending their six-year war. This brought Russia for the first time to the Mediterranean as the acknowledged protector of Orthodox Christians. (HN, 7/16/98)(WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A24) • 1781 • Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Herschel discovers Uranus.
Era 3- Timeline Georgia events • 1778- Siege of Savannah ends with the city falling to British troops Dec. 29 • 1794-May4 - General Elijah Clarke, dissatisfied with the Treaty of Paris, crosses the Oconee and establishes the Transoconee Republic in Creek lands. The republic is 10 miles wide and stretches for 120 miles along the Oconee River. • 1801-December 5 - Clarke and Tattnall Counties formed. • 1819- May 22 - S.S. Savannah sails from Savannah, Georgia and arrives in Liverpool, England on June 30.
The Patriot (2000) After proving himself on the field of battle in the French and Indian War, Benjamin Martin wants nothing more to do with such things, preferring the simple life of a farmer. But when his son Gabriel enlists in the army to defend their new nation, America, against the British, Benjamin reluctantly returns to his old life to protect his son, now serving under his command, and his family from British tyranny. Revolution LP.doc Era 3 Film and Lesson Plan
Why this film? • An excellent movie to show the ideas surrounding and the strength of the common man during the Revolutionary War is The Patriot. This movie shows the conflict between America and Great Britain just before the American Revolution broke out and then takes the viewer through the South Carolina campaigns. One of the key statements in the movie is how everything is going to change; Cornwallis (in the movie) says “everything has already changed”. It is an excellent film to view the traditional colonist and does not focus on the men who were made famous by the revolution: Sam Adams, Washington, Jefferson, etc.
Other Era 3 films to consider… • The Crossing • 1776 • The Hessians
Era 4- Expansion and Reform (1801-61) Timeline World Events • 1803- Napoleonic Wars begin • 1819 – Simon Bolivar liberates New Grenada (present day Columbia, Venezuela) • 1825- First passenger carrying railroad car in England • 1839- First Opium Wars begins between Britain and China
Era 4- Georgia events • 1801- The University of Georgia opens for classes • 1831- US Supreme Court rules Indian tribes can not sue in court in Cherokee Nation VS. Georgia • 1859- Georgia prohibits the post-mortem freeing of slaves by will and testament. State legislature votes to permit blacks to be sold into slavery if they have been indicted as criminals • 1860- Georgia ranked 4th for amount of cotton output
The Alamo (2004) Historical drama detailing the 1835-36 Texas revolution before, during, and after the famous siege of the Alamo (February 23-March 6, 1836) where 183 Texans (American-born Texans) and Tejanos (Mexican-born Texans) commanded by Colonel Travis, along with Davey Crockett and Jim Bowie, were besieged in an abandoned mission outside San Antonio by a Mexican army of nearly 2,000 men under the personal command of the dictator of Mexico Era 4 film
More Era 4 films • The Alamo (1960) • Texas (1994) Based on James A Michener's best selling novel
Era 5- Civil War and Reconstruction Timeline- World events • 1861- Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, dies of typhoid fever • 1862- Russian Czar Alexander II frees the Serfs • 1867- The British North America Act creates a self-ruling Canada under British dominion • 1869- Suez Canal opens. Shortens trip to India by over 4,000 miles
Era 5- Georgia Events • 1860- Georgia secedes from the Union • 1862- Fort Pulaski captured by the Union Army. Savannah is all but surrounded. • 1862- The Great Locomotive Chase takes place between Big Shanty (now Kennesaw) and Tunnel Hill, GA • 1864- Atlanta capture by General Sherman. “March to the Sea” begins. Savannah captured December 22. • 1870- Georgia is readmitted into the Union
Gone with the Wind (1939) Considered by many to be the greatest film ever, this epic covers the life of a Georgia family before during and after the Civil War Civil War LP- GWTW.doc Era 5 Film
Why this film? • Why not? • Especially for those in Georgia, the students can relate to this film as it mentions a lot of places that they are familiar with. The film depicts, with major detail, the events, conditions and hardships faced by those who lived in the South during the Civil War era. More times than not, a student has at least heard about the Civil War in Georgia and the references to GWTW.
More Era 5 films • The Birth of a Nation • Ironclads • Glory • Gettysburg / Gods & Generals • Red Badge of Courage • The Great Locomotive Chase
Era 6- Development of the Industrial US (1870-1900) Timeline World events • 1870- Franco-Prussian war • 1884- Berlin West African Conference • 1888- Jack the Ripper murders in London • 1893- New Zealand become first country in the world to let women vote
Era 6- Georgia events • 1871- Georgia represented for the first time in both houses of Congress • 1881 First African American Nursing School opened at Spelman College • 1886- Coca-Cola went on sale for the first time in an Atlanta drugstore • 1891- Jim Crow laws enacted in Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, and Tennessee
Gangs of New York (2002) This film depicts the wave of immigration that hit New York City and the social issues and problems that surfaced as foreigners adjusted to their new homeland. Immigration LP.doc Era 6 film-
More Era 6 films… • Union Pacific • I Will Fight No More Forever • Fort Apache • High Noon • Pony Express • Son of the Morning Star • They Died with Their Boots On • Tombstone
Era 7- The Emergence of Modern America (1890-1930) Timeline World events • 1914- Jun 28 -Archduke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, signaling the snowball effect that led to the start of WWI on August 2nd. • 1915- May 7- RMS Lusitania is sunk by a German U-boat without warning off the south coast of Ireland. Of the 2200 on board, 1128 die, including 128 Americans. Her sinking would eventually led the US into WWI almost two years later. • 1917- April 6- the US formally declared war on Germany after Germany resumes unrestricted U-boat warfare. • 1919- US Senate rejects the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations, causing the US to not become part of the new world body
Era 7- Georgia Events • 1906- Race Riots break out in Atlanta. Several hundred are killed • 1909- First racetrack in Atlanta is built on the Fulton-Clayton County line. While the track goes bust in ten years, an airplane that buzzed the field foretold its future. The racetrack was known as Candler Field, which later became Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport • 1915- Leo Frank, after having his sentences commuted by Governor Lewis Slaton, is broken out of prison, driven to Marietta and lynched for allegedly murdering Mary Phagan. It was later found that Frank did not murder Miss Phagan, and he was pardoned in 1986. • 1917- 73 square blocks of Atlanta is burned during the Great Fire of Atlanta. 10,000 people are left homeless
Sgt York (1940) The classic film starring Gary Cooper in the title role as a Tennessee born against Christian and pacifist who overcomes his convictions after being drafted into WWI and later on single handedly captures 132 Germans in battle Era 7 film
Why this film? • This film is an allegory to what the US was going through prior to WWII. York represents the isolationist and neutral sentiments of the American people prior to the war, and the film mirrors the sentiment of the government to try and get ready for an upcoming war (both WWI and WWII). Also, the back story about life in Appalachia exposes the students to how people survived during this time.
More Era 7 films • The Lost Battalion • A Night to Remember / Titanic (1997) / Titanic (1953) • A Farewell to Arms • Eight Men Out • Warm Springs • St. Valentine’s Day Massacre • The Untouchables
Era 8- The Great Depression and WWII (1929-45) Timeline World Events • Sept 14 1930 - Germans elect Nazis making them the 2nd largest political party in Germany. • Jan 30, 1933- Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany, starting the Third Reich • Sept 1, 1939- Germany invades Poland, signaling the start of WWII • Apr 30, 1945- Hitler commits suicide in his Berlin bunker along with his wife. Berlin falls May 3. Germans surrender May 7
Era 8- Georgia Events • Dec 15, 1939- Gone with the Wind premieres in Atlanta. • 1942 - January 28 - The Eight Air Force is activated in Savannah. • 1943- Georgia allows 18 year olds to vote • 1945- April 12- President Roosevelt dies at Warm Springs, Georgia.
Saving Private Ryan (1997) Perhaps the most accurate depiction of the Normandy landings, this film focuses on a platoon sent behind enemy lines to find one soldier so that he may be sent home. Era 8 film
Why this film? • This film was made to honor the men and women from “The Greatest Generation” who sacrificed their lives to rid the world of tyranny. The film depicts with harrowing accuracy the landings at Normandy and the hardships the Allied troops had to endure just to establish a foothold on Hitler’s “Fortress Europe.”
More Era 8 films • Pearl Harbor / Tora! Tora! Tora! / December 7th • Patton / MacArthur • Battle of the Bulge / The Longest Day / Midway • The Great Escape • Nuremberg / Judgment at Nuremberg • Fat Man & Little Boy • The Thin Red Line (1964) • The Best Years of Our Lives
Era 9- Postwar US (1945-early 70s)Timeline World Events • Oct 1949- The People’s Republic of China is proclaimed after Nationalist forces escape to Taiwan • 1950: June -- Korean War begins. Armistice is signed July 1953 • 1957- The USSR launches Sputnik, the first man made satellite into space • 1964: Oct 16 -- China detonates its first atomic bomb
Era 9- Georgia Events • February 15, 1950: Marietta Air Force Base is renamed Dobbins Air Force Base in honor of Capt. Charles Dobbins, a flyer from Marietta who was shot down in the Mediterranean Sea near Sicily in July, 1943 • March 1, 1950: Herman Talmadge, Walter George, Richard B. Russell and William Hartsfield break ground on the Corps of Engineers project at Lake Lanier • January 18, 1950: Georgia State Industrial College renamed to Savannah State College City of Savannah, Georgia • November 19, 1960:Georgia on My Mind by Ray Charles reaches Number 1 • April 4, 1974: Hank Aaron breaks Babe Ruth’s all time home run record, hitting HR #715 in Atlanta.
Selma, Lord, Selma (1999) In 1965 Alabama, an 11 year old girl is touched by a speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. and becomes a devout follower. But her resolution is tested when she joins others in the famed march from Selma to Montgomery. Selma March LP.doc Era 9 film
Why this film? • I chose my lesson based on the theme of conflict and change. During the Civil Rights Era there was a great deal of change as far as African Americans stepping up and saying “We will overcome”. Conflict comes in when white Americans were not fair and did not treat African American with the respect all humans deserve. We also decided that we would relate our cases to movies which is where technology comes in. I used the Disney movie Selma Lord Selma as my film. This film depicts a little girls’ courage to stand up for her rights. It articulates the feelings of African Americans during the movement. It shows real events and a fact based account of history.
More Era 9 films… • American Graffiti • The Right Stuff / Apollo 13 • JFK • Mississippi Burning / Malcolm X • Quiz Show • The Green Berets / Forrest Gump • Platoon / Full Metal Jacket • Thirteen Days / Fail Safe / Dr. Strangelove
Era 10- Contemporary America (1968- present) Timeline World Events • 1975- As the last Americans evacuate from the US embassy in Saigon, South Vietnam falls to the Communist forces from the North. • 1980- Polish shipyard workers form the Solidarity Party in Gdansk, signaling a change in politics in Soviet controlled Eastern Europe • 1989- In what is dubbed “The Year of Democracy,” the pro-Soviet governments in East Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Romania collapse to pro-democracy movements. A similar movement begins in China, but is crushed by the Army overnight in Tiananmen Square. • 2001- The Global “War on Terror” begins as the US and her allies invade Afghanistan to topple the pro-bin Laden Taliban government.
Era 10 Georgia Events • 1976- Jimmy Carter, then Governor of Georgia, is elected the 39th President of the US, making him the first Georgian to occupy the White House • 1988- Atlanta hosts its first political convention by hosting the Democrats at the Omni in Atlanta. Michael Dukakis is nominated, then loses to George HW Bush. • 1996- Atlanta hosts the largest sporting event in the world during the Centennial Olympic Games. • 2003- Georgia’s 48th Infantry Brigade is among the several tens of thousands of troops sent to Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom
All the President’s Men (1976) This film tells the story of Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, two Washington Post journalist who, after investigating the Watergate break-in, stumble upon a cover-up that eventually brings down the President. Era 10 Film
Why this film? • After Watergate, people are now more distrusting of their government than in previous times. By viewing this film, they not only learn of the corruption that tried to cover up the scandal to begin with, but they come away with the notion that no one in the government is above the law and that it is the job of someone to make sure that notion stays true.
Era 10 Films… • The China Syndrome • Wall Street • Jarhead • The War Room • Bowling for Columbine / Roger & Me / Fahrenheit 9/11 • United 93