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    1. Helping students help themselves Marilla Svinicki Educational Psychology The University of Texas at Austin

    3. Instructional problem: Emphasis on memorization I studied so hard and thought I knew everything. How could I get a C? Could you post all the notes on the website? Whats the right answer?

    4. What does it mean to understand? Put a concept in your own terms? Give your own examples? Apply the concept to new situations? Understand the structure of a concept and how it relates to other concepts.

    5. Structural knowledge: the concept map

    6. Why does structure help?5 It provides organization to memory, which reduces cognitive load. It identifies similar concepts for generalization. It forms the basis for analogical reasoning. It allows you to fill in gaps by inference. It allows you to imagine possible realities you havent directly experienced.

    7. A simple comparative organizer

    8. Example of a cumulative, comparative organizer

    9. A generative chart

    10. Applying this to your own situation. Is there an example of a structural model of the content that you use in your course? How can you encourage students to use or create their own structural understanding representations?

    11. Instructional Problem: Poor student self-regulation

    12. How can we help our students be better learners? The GAMES model G oal-oriented learning A ctive learning M eaningful learning E xplanations and learning S elf-regulation of learning

    13. Goal-oriented learning Example of good goals for studying Be able to list, define and give my own example of the key vocabulary in a chapter. Be able to solve the problems highlighted in a chapter without looking at the solution beforehand. Be able to explain how the statistical test described in this chapter differs from the one in the previous chapter.

    14. Active learning Examples of good active learning strategies for studying: Outlining or creating charts to make connections Summarizing or paraphrasing sections of the reading Working through problems Thinking of examples or questions Creating mental images, metaphors, analogies Whats wrong with highlighting? What about in your field?

    15. Meaningful learning Encourage structural understanding Making outlines Using concept maps Creating comparative organizers Drawing flow charts Creating a story line for sequences

    16. Explanations and learning Using peer learning during and outside of class time Face to face in class group activities Online discussion boards or chat rooms Contributor FAQs sites Reflective journals or blogs with responses Identified Audience summary sheets

    17. Self-regulation of learning What does it involve? Self, task, strategy knowledge Self-monitoring, evaluation and correction Examples of Self-regulation activities Students hand in a critique of own papers. Study plans or phased paper writing Selection amongst options

    18. Would GAMES work for your students and your content? What do you do already that helps your students become better learners? How would you adapt GAMES to your classes? What special learning strategies are particularly salient for your discipline? (Can you help my research team?)

    19. Instructional problem: Misplaced or lack of motivation Will that be on the test? I need an A in this class. What can I do for extra credit? Just tell me the right answer. Students are too focused on grades or not focused at all.

    20. Motivation: Goal Orientation Four proposed orientations Mastery I want to learn Approach I want to succeed Avoidance I dont want to fail Strategic effort I want the biggest bang for my buck

    21. Fostering mastery goals7 Clear expectations Focus on personal improvement Emphasize learning value of errors Positive support and useful feedback De-emphasize comparison with others Allow some personal control over the process Develop classroom community

    22. Motivation: Self-efficacy for a task What is it and what effects does it have? Encouraging accurate self-efficacy Past success Present success Persuasion through support Mindful analysis of learning

    23. Motivation: Value of a task Where does value come from? Utility Interest Challenge Self-determination Societal influences Why should students learn your content?

    24. How would this apply to you?

    25. Instructional problem: Transfer failure Didnt you learn how to do this last semester? That stuff is from the previous chapter. Do I have to remember it now? Students fail to make use of what they already know, and they forget everything after the test.

    26. Useful learning theory Cognitive learning theory The value of activating prior knowledge The need to overcome situated learning The need to create a transfer mindset Teaching strategies Building on what students know Providing lots of varied practice Emphasizing mindful learning Build in activities that point forward

    27. How would this apply to you? How do you help students connect? What previously learned content/skills would be important to remind students of in your class? How do you make the connection between the present and future uses of content?

    28. A quick review Foster structural understanding instead of memorization. Help students learn to self-regulate. Cultivate student motivation. Encourage students to think about transfer while theyre learning.

    29. Readings about learning Bransford, J., Brown, A. and Cocking, R. (1999) How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Halpern, D. and Hakel, M. (2002) Applying the science of learning to university teaching and beyond. New Directions for Teaching and Learning no. 89 San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publisher. Halpern, D. and Associates (1994) Changing College Classrooms. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publisher. Svinicki, M. (2004) Learning and Motivation in Postsecondary Classrooms. Bolton, MA: Anker Press.