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Formal Organization. Basics. Prior to Capitalism & Modern State: . 1. Who built the pyramids? Large scale organizational effort 2. Traditional Societies rely on kinship connections-also small business 3. Amish-example of a community based organizational effort

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Formal Organization

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prior to capitalism modern state
Prior to Capitalism & Modern State:
  • 1. Who built the pyramids? Large scale organizational effort
  • 2. Traditional Societies rely on kinship connections-also small business
  • 3. Amish-example of a community based organizational effort
  • 4. Mafia-Organized Crime
since 19 th century formal organizations
Since 19th Century: Formal Organizations
  • Government—Government Agencies. The Civil Service. “Bureaus”
  • Economic—corporations, business enterprise
  • Civil Society—political parties, labor unions, churches, the PTA, environmental action groups, etc.
types of formal organizations
Types of Formal Organizations
  • 1. Voluntary—not paid. For leisure, a political or religious purpose, self-help
  • 2. Coercive—against the will of lower participants (prisons, mental hospital, military [when drafted])
  • 3. Utilitarian—to accomplish everyday tasks=universities, corporations, labor unions, government bureaus
  • 1. Problems of loyalty of participants
  • 2. Control of inmates, or lower participants
  • 3. Involvement is not entirely voluntary nor compulsory
  • Issue: different internal dynamics of each
type 2 coercive
Type 2 (Coercive)
  • Erving Goffman: Total Institutions and the mortification of self. Transformation of self within the institution
  • (Involuntary confinement—mental hospitals, jails, prisons, ships, boot camp, concentration camps, boarding school)
max weber
Max Weber:
  • Formal Organization=Bureaucracy
bureaucracy is an ideal type
Bureaucracy is an Ideal type
  • 1. A formal “division of labor” (duties, responsibilities clearly defined in writing (job description), an organizational chart
  • 2. Offices and positions organized in a hierarchy of authority in a pyramid (a chain of command)
bureaucracy continued
Bureaucracy continued:
  • 3. General, abstract Rules and Regulations define duties and relationships of offices and personnel (remain the same regardless of change in personnel)
  • 4. Positions filled on basis of technical competence (based on education, training or experience)
bureaucracy continued10
Bureaucracy (continued)
  • 5. Incumbents do not “own” their offices, cannot use for personal ends. Supplied with tools required to perform their work.
  • 6. Career employment, with promotion based on seniority or merit or both. Tenure makes less susceptible to outside pressures.
  • 7. Permanent files:decisions, procedures etc
weber bureaucracy efficiency
Weber: bureaucracy=efficiency
  • Weber becomes a functionalist
  • Weber thought that socialism would mean more bureaucracy
  • More bureaucracy=less individual freedom
  • Modern society requires bureaucracy (higher standard of living, services available to all citizens, etc)
criticisms of weber
Criticisms of Weber:
  • 1. Rule following may be inefficient (lower level employees often need to take the initiative, violate rules)
  • 2. Loyalty and morale affects productivity—related to “informal organization”
problems issues with formal organization bureaucracy
Problems/Issues with Formal Organization, Bureaucracy
  • 1. Oligarchy—Roberto Michels the Iron Law of Oligarchy in labor unions, political parties
  • (exception= the ITU International Typographical Union)
problems issues continued
Problems/Issues continued
  • 2. Overstaffing (usually at top)
  • Parkinson’s Law= “work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion”
  • 3. Trained incapacity. Develop “tunnel vision”
the realities of bureaucracies
The “Realities” of Bureaucracies:
  • 1. Individuals bring their problems to work, have outside obligations
  • 2. Rules interfere with rapid change
  • 3. Designed for “average case”
  • 4. Formal system needs more: development of informal system
perspectives on bureaucracy
Perspectives on Bureaucracy
  • Conflict: organizational goals reflect priorities of those in top positions
  • Reward structure mirror’s class structure of larger society (e.g., managers, executives pay)
symbolic interactionist
Symbolic Interactionist
  • Participants are active. Example of hospital as “negotiated order”, can change daily in complex situation
  • Welfare agency: cases assigned according to client needs, employee capability
critical synthesis
Critical Synthesis
  • 1. World is “loosely coupled”, thus, “goals” more like “loose constraints”
  • 2. Jobs to pay off political debts
  • 3. People need income, are there for job security
  • 4. Managers are upward bound
  • 5. Some organizations as “pension plan”