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ECE 6160: Advanced Computer Networks High Speed Networking Instructor: Dr. Xubin (Ben) He Email: Tel: 931-372-3462 Prev… Etherent Switches Comparison of hubs, bridges, switches, and routers Routing and switch design issues Outline Why gigabit? HIPPI Fibre channel

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Ece 6160 advanced computer networks high speed networking l.jpg

ECE 6160: Advanced Computer NetworksHigh Speed Networking

Instructor: Dr. Xubin (Ben) He


Tel: 931-372-3462

Slide2 l.jpg

  • Etherent Switches

  • Comparison of hubs, bridges, switches, and routers

  • Routing and switch design issues

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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  • Why gigabit?


  • Fibre channel

  • Gigabit Ethernet

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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How much a Ggiabit is?

  • 622,000,000 bps = OC-12

  • 800,000,000 bps (100 MBps Fiber Channel)

  • 1,000,000,000 bps

  • 1,073,741,800 bps = 230 bps (210 = 1024 = 1k)

  • 1,244,000,000 bps = OC-24

  • 800 Mbps Þ Fiber Channel PHY

  • 1000Base-X

  • 1000Base-T

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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Why Gigabits?

  • Amdahl's Law: One bit I/O per instruction

  • Mb/s = MIPS

  • 100 MIPS machine needs 100 Mb/s I/O

  • 1000 MIPS machine needs 1000 Mb/s I/O

  • 133 MHz Pentium = 200 SPECint92 = 200 MIPS

  • 200 MHz Pentium Pro = 350 SPECint92

  • 2GHZ Pentium 4 system = more than 1400 MIPS on your desktop

  • SCSI = 5-20 MBytes/sec = 80-160 Mb/s

  • Ultra SCSI: 160-320MB/s=1.25G-2.5Gb/s

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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  • High Performance Peripheral Interface

  • Los Alamos National Lab needed to connect displays with supercomputers

  • 1k × 1k pixel × 24 bits/pixel × 30 frames/s = 750 Mb/s

  • Proposed in January 1987

  • Standard in 1991

  • Fiber was too expensive Þ Copper Þ 25 Mb/s

  • Copper Þ 25 Mb/s Þ 800/25 = 32 pairs

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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HIPPI overview

  • ANSI standard

  • Speeds: 800 Mb/s and 1.6 Gb/s

  • Cabling: 50-pair STP

    • Recently extended to single-mode and multimode fiber

  • Distance:

    • 50 meters point to point over copper.

    • 200 meters over copper w cascaded switches

    • 300 meters over multimode fiber

    • 10 kilometers over single-mode fiber

  • Point-to-point link. Simplex (one-way) connection

  • Cost per switched port: $2,000

  • Cost per adapter card: $2,000 to $18,000

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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HIPPI products

  • HIPPI Switches: Avaika Networks, Essential Communications, NetStar Inc., Network System Corp.

  • HIPPI routers and bridges: NetStar Inc. Gigarouter,

  • Host Interface Adapters for HIPPI: Avaika Networks, Cray Research, Essential Communications, IBM's MCA HIPPI adapter for the RS/6000 and SP2, Myriad Logic, Network System Corp., Silicon Graphics

  • HIPPI storage devices: Maximum Strategy, TRW,TRIPLEX

  • HIPPI Frame Buffers: Avaika Networks, PsiTech,

  • HIPPI extenders: Broadband Communications Products, Network Systems Corp.

  • HIPPI analyzers and tools: Avaika Networks, Essential Communications

  • HIPPI components: AMCC, BCP, Methode CERN is using HIPPI for data collection from a Large Hadron Collider

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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Frame format


Link layer technology

GBE: borrows from FC and Ethernet

  • FC:

    • Physical specifications, fibre optics

    • 8b/10b data encoding

    • Ordered sets for link commands and delimiters

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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GBE objectives

  • 1000 Mb/s MAC

  • 802.3 Ethernet Frame format

  • Meet all 802 requirements except possibly Hamming distance

  • Preserve min and max frame size of 802.3

  • Full and half-duplex operation

  • Support star-wired topologies

  • Use CSMA/CD with at least 1 repeater

  • Support Fiber and, if possible, copper

  • At least 500 m over multimode fiber, At least 25 m over copper

    Þ Wiring-closet or data center backbone 100 m desirable

  • At least 2 km on single mode fiber

  • Collision domain diameter of 200 m

  • Accommodate 802.3x flow control

  • Cost effective

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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GBE(802.3z)/Ethernet(802.3) and FC

802.2 LLC


full full duplex MAC

802.2 LLC







802.3 Physical



ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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GBE Layers

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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MAC issue

  • Carrier Extension

  • Frame Bursting

  • Buffered Distributor

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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Carrier extension

  • Slot time (or slot size):A signal propagates from one end to the other. Minimum time to detect a collision.

  • Carrier Extension is a way of maintaining 802.3 minimum and maximum frame sizes with meaningful cabling distances.

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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  • The MAC Layer of Gigabit Ethernet uses the same CSMA/CD protocol as Ethernet. The maximum length of a cable segment used to connect stations is limited by the CSMA/CD protocol. If two stations simultaneously detect an idle medium and start transmitting, a collision occurs.

  • Ethernet has a minimum frame size of 64 bytes.

  • The reason for having a minimum size frame is to prevent a station from completing the transmission of a frame before the first bit has reached the far end of the cable, where it may collide with another frame. Therefore, the minimum time to detect a collision is the time it takes for the signal to propagate from one end of the cable to the other.

  • This minimum time is called the Slot Time. ( A more useful metric is Slot Size, the number of bytes that can be transmitted in one Slot Time. In Ethernet, the slot size is 64 bytes, the minimum frame length.)

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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Gigabit Ethernet Slot Time

  • The maximum cable length permitted in Ethernet is 2.5km (allowing up to 4 repeaters in a single network path). As the bit rate increases, the sender transmits the frame faster. As a result, if the same frames sizes and cable lengths are maintained, then a station may transmit a frame too fast and not detect a collision at the other end of the cable. So, one of two things has to be done :

  • Keep the maximum cable length and increase the slot time ( and therefore, minimum frame size) OR

  • keep the slot time same and decrease the maximum cable length

    OR both.In Fast Ethernet, the maximum cable length is reduced to only 100 meters, leaving the minimum frame size and slot time intact.

  • Gigabit Ethernet maintains the minimum and maximum frame sizes of Ethernet. Since, Gigabit Ethernet is 10 times faster than Fast Ethernet, to maintain the same slot size, maximum cable length would have to be reduced to about 10 meters, which is not very useful. Instead, Gigabit Ethernet uses a bigger slot size of 512 bytes.

  • To maintain compatibility with Ethernet, the minimum frame size is not increased, but the "carrier event" is extended. If the frame is shorter than 512 bytes, then it is padded with extension symbols. These are special symbols, which cannot occur in the payload. This process is called Carrier Extension.

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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Frame bursting

  • Carrier Extension wastes bandwidth. Up to 448 padding bytes may be sent for small packets. This results in low throughput. In fact, for a large number of small packets, the throughput is only marginally better than Fast Ethernet.

  • Packet Bursting is "Carrier Extension plus a burst of packets". When a station has a number of packets to transmit, the first packet is padded to the slot time if necessary using carrier extension. Subsequent packets are transmitted back to back, with the minimum Inter-packet gap (IPG) until a burst timer (of 1500 bytes) expires. Packet Bursting substantially increases the throughput.

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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Buffered distributor (Full Duplex Repeater or Buffered Repeater)

  • A Buffered Distributor is a multi-port repeater with full-duplex links. It provides hub functionality with full duplex mode of operation. Each port has an input FIFO queue and an output FIFO queue. A frame arriving to an input queue is forwarded to all output queues, except the one on the incoming port.

  • It provides full duplex connectivity, just like a switch, yet it is not so expensive, because it is just an extension of a repeater.

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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Full Duplex Operation

  • Half Duplex Ethernet & Fast Ethernets is based on CSMA/CD

  • IEEE ratified 802.3x in 1995 = Full Duplex = can send send and receive frames simultaneously

  • Requires point-to-point environment, stations connected to HUBS or ROUTERS will work at Half Duplex

  • Stations connected back to back or to Layer-2 Switches will work at Full Duplex

  • Full Duplex devices are NOT interoperable with Half Duplex devices – mismatch errors

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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Physical media

  • Copper

    • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP-5): 4-pairs

    • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

  • Fibre optics

    • Multimode Fiber: 50 mm and 62.5 mm

    • Single-Mode Fiber: 10 mm

  • Bit Error Rate better than 10-12

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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GBE Physical Layer

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks

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  • Ethernet is running at 1000Mbps, and 10Gbps is available…

  • Is competing with ATM and FC

  • Both shared and full-duplex links

  • Fully compatible with current Ethernet

ECE6160:Advanced Computer Networks