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DOT-Mandated Drug and Alcohol Testing. Reasonable Suspicion Supervisory Training . Workplace Impacts of Substance Abuse. 3.5 X more workplace accidents 2.7 X more absences 3 X more medical benefits usage 10-20% decreased productivity Increased loss/shrinkage

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dot mandated drug and alcohol testing

DOT-Mandated Drug and Alcohol Testing

Reasonable Suspicion

Supervisory Training

workplace impacts of substance abuse
Workplace Impacts of Substance Abuse
  • 3.5 X more workplace accidents
  • 2.7 X more absences
  • 3 X more medical benefits usage
  • 10-20% decreased productivity
  • Increased loss/shrinkage
  • Higher incidence of workplace violence
dot drug alcohol rules
DOT Drug & Alcohol Rules
  • Prohibited conduct
    • Use of controlled substances/illicit drugs and/or alcohol while on company property or while on-duty
    • Testing positive for drugs or alcohol
    • Refusing to test (including adulterating or tampering with a drug/alcohol test)
    • Use of alcohol 4 hr. before duty (8 hrs. for flight crew)
    • Use of alcohol after an accident prior to alcohol test (8 hrs. )
consequences of dot violation
Consequences of DOT Violation
  • Immediate removal from safety-sensitive duty
    • Applicants cannot be hired
  • Referral information on Substance Abuse Professionals must be provided by employer
  • Must complete return to duty process prior to resuming safety-sensitive duties
  • For an alcohol test result of .02-.039 BrAC, employee must be temporarily removed from duty
    • 24 hrs. for CDL employee; 8 hrs. for FRA; 8 hrs or retest of <0.02 for all others

Additional disciplinary actions are up to employer

dot drug and alcohol testing
DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing
  • Pre-employment drug testing
    • Post-offer alcohol testing is authorized, not required
  • Reasonable cause/suspicion drug/alcohol testing
    • Based on behavior, conduct or appearance
  • Post-accident drug/alcohol testing
    • For DOT defined work-related accidents.
  • Random drug/alcohol testing
    • PHMSA & USCG do not have random alcohol testing
  • Return to duty and follow-up drug/alcohol testing
    • as part of DOT return to duty process
testing procedures
Testing Procedures
  • Urine drug testing
  • Evidential breath alcohol testing for alcohol
  • Employees will complete custody and control forms to document every test
  • Tests will be conducted by qualified, trained personnel
  • Drug test results will be reported to the MRO and then to designated Company contacts
  • Alcohol test results are reported by the alcohol technician to the Company representative
drug testing
Drug Testing
  • Urine specimen provided by employee in private toilet enclosure
  • Specimens poured into two bottles-labeled and sealed in employee’s presence
  • Analyzed at a SAMHSA-certified laboratory—2 tests performed on the specimen before reporting it as positive
  • Laboratory results reported to physician MRO
  • MRO will contact employee and conduct interview to determine if prescription medications or other medical factors explain the test result
  • MRO reports final result to Company representative
  • Employee has the right to have the “split specimen” tested at a second laboratory to reconfirm the original findings.
alcohol testing
Alcohol Testing
  • If initial test detects alcohol (0.02 BAC), a confirmation breath test is conducted after 15 minutes. If second test is 0.04 or greater it is a positive test.
    • DOT rules allow use of a saliva or non-evidential breath device for the initial test.
    • Confirmation test must always use an EBT
  • Any test result less than 0.02 is a negative.
  • Mouthwash, cough syrup, cold medicines, breath sprays, if used according to directions, will not produce a positive confirmation test
  • Breath alcohol test will not detect acetone, ketones, and other biologically produced substances
  • Breath alcohol test is equal to a blood alcohol test
reasonable suspicion testing procedures
Reasonable Suspicion Testing Procedures
  • Observe employee; isolate him/her away from work area and coworkers
  • Request another supervisor/manager to observe/interact with employee
  • Complete supervisory checklist/reasonable suspicion documentation
  • Escort employee to testing site
  • Retain copies of testing forms
  • Arrange to have employee transported home
  • Employee cannot return to work until negative test results are received.
reasonable suspicion testing

Reasonable Suspicion Testing

Supervisory Training

Dr. Donna Smith

dsmith@firstlab.com

727-343-0283

727-204-8549

reasonable suspicion definition
Reasonable Suspicion - Definition
  • Reasonable suspicion:
    • is based on observations of an individual
      • Contemporaneous—just before, during, or after duty period
      • What the supervisor sees, hears or smells
    • is based on objective, documented criteria
      • Capable of being expressed as signs or symptoms of possible use of drugs/alcohol
  • Reasonable suspicion testing:
    • is used to “rule out” or eliminate alcohol or drug use as a cause of the individual’s behavior or appearance
    • is not a diagnostic tool
reasonable suspicion
Reasonable Suspicion
  • Decision to test must be based on supervisor’s observations (whenever possible 2 supervisors/managers should observe employee)
  • Supervisor making observations must have completed training in RS testing
  • Observations must be specific, contemporaneous and articulable, and must be documented on the Supervisor’s Checklist
  • Should test within 2 hours, discontinue after 8 hours
the problem employee
The Problem Employee
  • Workplace signs of alcoholism or alcohol abuse include:
    • chronic lateness
    • excessive absences
    • decreased productivity
    • poor performance
    • problem interactions with others
  • Time and attendance problems and changes in performance and productivity levels cannot trigger a reasonable suspicion test
supervisor s role
Supervisor’s Role
  • Identify the specific observations of employee behavior and appearance
  • Confront the employee concerning the requirement to undergo a test
  • Fully explain the consequences of the employee’s refusal to comply
  • Supervisor does not need to identify the specific drug associated with the behavior or appearance
  • Supervisor should be alert to changes in the employee’s usual behavior and appearance
confronting the employee
Confronting the Employee
  • Confronting the employee is the most difficult task
  • Confrontation should remain focused on employee behavior and appearance
  • RS test should be explained as a means to “rule out” prohibited drug/alcohol use
  • Do not accuse the employee of being “drunk” , “high” or under the influence of alcohol or drugs
alcohol misuse

Alcohol Misuse

Signs and Symptoms

effect of alcohol
Effect of Alcohol
  • Alcohol is a drug
  • Alcohol acts as a stimulant
  • Alcohol’s overall effect is a sedative or depressant
  • Alcohol’s effects vary from individual to individual
  • Alcohol’s effects on an individual vary from occasion to occasion
  • One drink metabolizes in approximately 1 1/2 hours
  • The higher the BAC, the more pronounced the effects of alcohol
alcohol facts
Alcohol Facts
  • BAC is based on individual’s body weight, amount of alcohol consumed, and the time period over which it was consumed
    • A 160-lb. person metabolizes approximately 1½ drinks per hour, or BAC decreases at a rate of 0.015 per hour
  • One Drink
    • 12 ounces of beer
    • 4½ ounces of wine
    • 1 to 1½ ounces of 80-86º liquor
  • Alcohol concentration is measurable during absorption, peak, and elimination phases
alcohol concentrations
Alcohol Concentrations
  • Peak BAC based on alcohol drinks per hour
alcohol elimination
Alcohol Elimination
  • 170 lb male eliminates .015 g/mL per hr
  • 2 drinks per hr for 7 hrs;
  • Stops drinking at 1 AM
  • 2 AM= .190 BAC; asleep
  • 3 AM=.175 BAC
  • 4 AM=.160 BAC
  • 5 AM= .145 BAC
  • 6 AM= .130 BAC; alarm goes off
  • 7AM= .115 BAC; drives to work
  • 8 AM= .100 BAC; starts work
  • 12 Noon= .040 BAC; Under the influence; violation of policy
alcohol elimination number of hours to 0 00 bac
Alcohol Elimination: Number of hours to 0.00 BAC

This is the approximate number of hours to zero BAC from the time drinking began.

slide23

Discussion:

  • Part of brain with different responses to alcohol
  • General slowing of various functions, some earlier than others
slide24

Mental functions affected by Alcohol Use

  • Cognitive functions are first effected
  • Individual is unaware of impact at low levels (.02-.04)
  • Judgment, computation, decision making, short term memory retrieval

Mental

(.02 - .04)

slide25

Alcohol affects sensory perception

    • Vision - decreased object tracking, night an peripheral vision background
    • Hearing - diminished acuity, ability to sort background noise
    • Smell - decreased sensitivity and selectivity
    • Taste - decreased sensitivity and selectivity

Sensory

(.04 - .06)

Mental

(.02 - .04)

slide26

Psychomotor Functions

Speech is one of the earliest motor skills to be affected

Speech changes may include over-enunciation, slurring, or exaggerated speech patterns

Coordination, reflexes and fine motor dexterity are diminished

Reaction times are slower, movements appear delayed or retarded

Speech & Fine Motor

(.08 - .10)

Sensory

(.04 - .06)

Mental

(.02 - .04)

slide27

Gross Motor Skills

  • Gross motor skills are one of the last categories of functioning to be effected
  • Most noticeable area is gait
  • Head movements, spatial relationships and torso movements are effected

Speech & Fine Motor

(.08 - .10)

Gross Motor

(.10 - .25)

Sensory

(.04 - .06)

Mental

(.02 - .04)

slide28

Balance and Navigation

  • Balance is controlled by the inner ear
  • Alcohol intoxication vertigo (room spin)
  • Nausea and vomiting

Gross Motor

(.10 - .25)

Speech & Fine Motor

(.08 - .10)

Balance

(.25 - .35)

Sensory

(.04 - .06)

Mental

(.02 - .04)

slide29

Life Threatening BAC Levels

  • Brain stem involvement
  • Slowing of autonomic nervous system functions
  • Coma (respiratory and cardiovascular function depressed)
  • Death (respiratory and cardiovascular systems failure)

Gross Motor

(.10 - .25)

Speech & Fine Motor

(.08 - .10)

Balance

(.25 - .35)

Sensory

(.04 - .06)

Mental

(.02 - .04)

Brain Stem

(.35 - .45)

signs of alcohol intoxication
Signs of Alcohol Intoxication
  • 0.02 - 0.08
    • Odor of alcohol on breath
    • Poor judgment, increased risk taking behavior
    • Decreased reasoning ability, forgetfulness
    • Slower reflex reactions
signs of alcohol intoxication31
Signs of Alcohol Intoxication
  • 0.08 and above
    • Clumsiness, staggering, unsteady gait
    • Poor coordination, slowed reflex, diminished reaction times
    • Bloodshot eyes, impaired tracking ability
    • Slurred speech patterns
    • Exaggerated emotion, excitement, belligerent attitude
    • Disheveled clothing, poor personal grooming
    • Flushed complexion, sweating
alcohol odor
Alcohol Odor
  • Alcohol beverages have a characteristic, distinct odor
  • Odor of alcohol persists on the breath following alcohol use
  • Individuals often try to mask the odor by using breath fresheners
multiple signs and symptoms
Multiple Signs and Symptoms
  • Many signs and symptoms of alcohol or drug use can be due to other causes
  • A good “rule of thumb” is document at least two symptoms
    • odor of alcohol on breath is the most definitive sign of recent alcohol use
  • If signs and symptoms are associated with either alcohol or drug use, you should conduct both urine and breath tests
reasonable suspicion testing34

Reasonable Suspicion Testing

Signs & Symptoms of Drug Use

illicit drugs
Illicit Drugs
  • Testing for marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, opiates, and PCP
  • Drugs are detectable in the urine long after the acute intoxication phase
  • Marijuana is detectable for several days after use and is cumulatively stored in the body
  • Positive thresholds ensure that passive exposure or unknowing ingestion does not produce a positive drug test
impact of illicit drugs
Impact of Illicit Drugs
  • Mental and motor functioning are affected for many hours after use of the drug
    • Some studies show measurable motor and mental functioning impact for up to 24 hours after marijuana use
    • Stimulant drug use (cocaine, amphetamines) often contributes to sleep deprivation which impacts mental and motor functioning
    • Sedative drugs slow motor and mental functioning for hours after use
  • Observable effects (physical signs and symptoms, speech, motor functioning)of drug use are often not present for more than a few hours after use. .
appearance signs and symptoms
Appearance Signs and Symptoms
  • Appearance changes due to drug use range from subtle to extreme
  • Personal grooming often deteriorates or dramatic changes in hairstyle, clothing may occur
  • Eyes are very susceptible to the effects of drugs:
    • eye movements such as tracking ability are affected
    • pupil size is altered
    • bloodshot, watery or unfocused eyes
  • Profuse sweating, the chills, flushed or pallid complexion may be dues to the effects of the drugs
  • Marijuana has a distinct odor when smoked that clings to the user’s breath and clothing
personality changes
Personality Changes
  • Personality changes are the most difficult to specify
  • Supervisor needs to be alert to changes in the employee’s usual personality traits or expression
  • Personality changes due to drug use often are sudden and dramatic
speech patterns
Speech Patterns
  • Stimulants create rapid, pressured speech patterns
  • Narcotics produce slow, thick, slurred speech
  • Hallucinogens may produce nonsense, fantasy speech
social interaction changes
Social Interaction Changes
  • Changes in social interaction are not specific to the drug
  • Changes in social interaction vary from individual
  • Supervisors should be alert to changes in the employee’s usual patterns of interacting with others
psychomotor changes
Psychomotor Changes
  • Stimulants speed up the body’s motor activity
  • Sedatives or narcotics slow down motor functions
  • Hallucinogens may produce bizarre motor movements
  • Marijuana delays reaction times, impairs eye-hand coordination and creates unsteadiness