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Control theories. Nye’s theory Matza’ theory Hirschi’s theory Self-control theory . Question for extra credit . Do you believe it is “latent trait” that makes a person crime prone, or is crime is a function of environment and socialization? . Control Theories.

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control theories

Control theories

Nye’s theory

Matza’ theory

Hirschi’s theory

Self-control theory

question for extra credit
Question for extra credit
  • Do you believe it is “latent trait” that makes a person crime prone, or is crime is a function of environment and socialization?
control theories3
Control Theories
  • Control theories take the opposite approach from other theories
  • Instead of asking what drives people to commit crime, they ask why do most people not commit crime
  • All human beings suffer from innate human weaknesses which make them unable to resist temptation
control theories main points
Control Theories: Main points
  • Focus on restraining or "controlling" factors that are broken or missing inside the personalities of criminals
  • Control theory investigate the ways in which our behavior is regulated, including the influences of family, school, morals, values, beliefs, etc.
  • It is this regulation that is seen as leading to conformity and compliance with the rules of society
forerunners of control theory
Forerunners of Control Theory
  • Emile Durkheim (late 19th century)
  • Industrial revolution
  • Collapse of social solidarity, the destruction of fundamental bonds uniting individuals
  • Different social order-each person is forced to go alone
forerunners of control theory6
Forerunners of Control Theory
  • “collective force of society” was weakened
  • “relaxation of social bonds” is leading to extreme individualism
  • Result - Anomie and suicide
the nature of man durkheim
The nature of “man” (Durkheim)
  • Homo Duplex concept
  • Social self – product of socialization, a civilized member of society
  • Egoistic self- is comprised of animal urges not controlled by society’s rules
  • Proper socialization, the egoistic self could become integrated into social self
  • Without this integration, deviance results
influence of classical school
Influence of Classical school
  • Free will (view individuals as active rather than passive agents)
  • Criminal behavior, like any type of behavior, is a result of rational choice
  • Internal controls (well-developed conscience)
  • External Controls (parental discipline, parental monitoring, laws)
nye s 1958 three main categories of social control that prevent delinquncy
Nye’s (1958) three main categories of social control that prevent delinquncy
  • Direct control, by which punishment is imposed for misconduct and compliance is rewarded
  • Indirect control, by which a youth refrains from delinquency because a particular act might cause pain/disappointment for parents or significant others
  • Internal control, by which a youth’s conscience or sense of quilt prevents him/her from engaging in delinquent acts
nye s theory
Nye’s theory
  • Family is the most important agent of socialization
  • The more adolescent's needs for affection, security, and recognition are met within the family, they less they will deviate (direct and indirect controls will be strong)
sykes and matza 1957
Sykes and Matza (1957)
  • Theory that explained delinquent behavior as the result of adolescents using “techniques of neutralization”
  • These techniques are justifications and excuses for committing delinquent acts
  • Delinquents believe in conventional values of society
techniques of neutralization
Techniques of neutralization
  • Denial of responsibility (not my fault)
  • Denial of injury (they have a lot, they will never miss it)
  • Denial of victim (I steal only from “outsiders”, “rednecks”)
  • Condemnation of condemners (they are worse than we are, they cannot blame me)
  • Appeal to higher loyalties (we have to do it to protect our turf size)
matza 1964 drift theory
Matza (1964) - Drift Theory
  • Proposes that techniques of neutralization are ways in which adolescents can get “episodic release” from norm restraints
  • Neutralization is a weakening of inner containment (breaking of the bonds to society)
  • Adolescents drift form conventional to delinquent behavior without strong attachment to any of the two
self control theory
Self-control theory
  • Theory states that individuals with high self-control will be less likely at all periods of life to engage in criminal acts, while individuals with low self-control are likely to commit crimes
self control
Self-control
  • Self-control develops during early socialization
  • Once formed in childhood, the amount of self-control remain relatively stable throughout life
  • The source of low self-control is ineffective socialization (childrearing)
  • Parents who are attached to children, supervise, monitor and punish deviant acts (family is the most important agent)
  • Peer groups are relatively unimportant in the development of self-control
age graded theory
Age-graded Theory

8-9 years

15-24 years

45-55 years

testability of self control theory
Testability of self-control theory
  • “analogous behavior” (smoking, drinking, drug use, illicit sex) is manifestation of low self-control
  • Hirschi and Gottfredson do not define “self-control” separately from propensity to toward criminal/analogous behavior
  • Problem of tautology: low self-control causes low self-control, or deviance causes deviance
  • A separate measure for low self-control must be developed
self control theory18
Self-control theory
  • Makes individualistic causal arguments
  • Each and every act of criminal behavior is the result of unique individual factors such as traits, which are semi-permanent enduring personality characteristics
individuals possess three sets of traits
Individuals possess three sets of traits
  • (1) traits composing low self-control;
  • (2) traits predicting involvement in crime (include low intelligence, high activity level, physical strength, and adventuresomeness)
  • (3) other traits that are the result of socialization (impulsivity, insensitivity, and inability to delay gratification)