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Chapter 4. The Nervous System. Key Concepts. autonomic nervous system axon central nervous system crossed extensor reflex dendrites endolymph. extrafusal muscle fibers (EF) extrapyramidal system flexion reflex golgi tendon organs internuncial neuron intrafusal muscle fibers (IF).

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

The

Nervous

System

slide3
autonomic nervous system

axon

central nervous system

crossed extensor reflex

dendrites

endolymph

  • extrafusal muscle fibers (EF)
  • extrapyramidal system
  • flexion reflex
  • golgi tendon organs
  • internuncial neuron
  • intrafusal muscle fibers (IF)
slide4
kinesthesis

motor cortex

myotatic reflex

neuron

parasympathetic branch

peripheral nervous system

premotor cortex

proprioception

  • pyramidal system
  • reciprocal inhibition
  • righting reflex
  • somatic nervous system
  • spinal reflex
  • sympathetic branch
  • vestibular receptors
what part of the nervous system controls the heart smooth muscle and glands
What part of the nervous system controls the heart, smooth muscle, and glands?

The autonomic nervous system

what part of the nervous system controls muscular activity under voluntary control
What part of the nervous system controls muscular activity under voluntary control?

The somatic nervous system

describe the spinal reflex
Describe the spinal reflex.
  • Involves a minimum of two neurons

Describe the path of the reflex.

  • The afferent neuron receives a stimulus and carries an impulse to the spinal cord where the impulse is transmitted across a synapse to an efferent neuron, which carries the impulse to a muscle or gland.
describe the myotatic reflex
Describe the myotatic reflex.
  • A simple, two-neuron reflex

Give an example.

  • An example is the knee jerk response.

Describe the path of the reflex.

  • Stretch of a muscle or its tendon initiates an impulse that travels in an afferent neuron to the muscle that was originally stretched. The result is the contraction of the muscle.
describe the flexion reflex
Describe the flexion reflex.
  • A simple reflex involving an internuncial neuron

Give an example.

  • Moving your hand away from a hot surface is an example

Describe the path of the reflex.

  • Sensory nerve endings in hand detect heat and generate an impulse that travels along the sensory neuron to the spinal cord.
  • There it synapses with an internuncial neuron, which acts as an intermediary between the sensory neuron and the motor neuron to the forearm flexor muscle.
  • When the impulse arrives at the forearm flexor, your forearm flexes and pulls your hand away.
reflexes are developed before birth true or false
Reflexes are developed before birth. True or False?

False. Most reflexes are learned responses

that involve higher brain centers.

describe the two types of receptors involved in proprioception and their function
Describe the two types of receptors involved in proprioception and their function.
  • Vestibular receptors in the semicircular canals of the inner ear
    • Contain crista, which are sensitive to the movement of endolymph and provide information about rotational deceleration or deceleration of movement
  • Vestibular receptors in the utricle
    • Provide information regarding linear acceleration and tilting, which helps spatial orientation
what are two functions of the golgi tendon organs
What are two functions of the Golgi tendon organs?
  • To prevent damage to a muscle or joint caused by excessive contraction of a muscle
  • To respond to muscle contraction by inhibiting further contraction and stimulating the muscle’s antagonist.
why is it important to avoid bouncing or jerking movements in stretching
Why is it important to avoid bouncing or jerking movements in stretching?
  • Such movements cause many spindles to discharge at the same time, initiating the myotatic reflex and causing the muscle to contract.
slide19
For the coach or physical educator, what are two important differences between the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems?
  • Electrical stimulation of the pyramidal system (area 4, or motor cortex) produces specific movements, so it is thought that learning a new skill involves this area.
  • Stimulation of the extrapyramidal system (area 6, or premotor cortex) produces large, general movement patterns. As skill increases, it is thought that the origin of the movement shifts to this area.
what two roles does the cerebellum play in the proprioceptive cerebellar system
What two roles does the cerebellum play in the proprioceptive-cerebellar system?
  • Receives sensory information regarding position, balance, and movement from receptors in muscles, joints, tendons, and skin as well as from visual, auditory, and vestibular organs.
  • Modifies muscular activity during movement.
exercise should be avoided by people with chronic neurological disorders true or false
Exercise should be avoided by people with chronic neurological disorders. True or False?

False. Evidence suggests that resistance

training may improve strength and muscle

function in victims of strokes, partial paralysis,

and polio.

slide23
The Autonomic Nervous System

www.ndrf.org/ans.htm

Neurons

www.ultranet.com/~jkimball/BiologyPages/N/Neurons.

html

North American Congress on Biomechanics

http://asb-biomech.org/archives/conference98.html

slide26
Figure 4.4 Diagram of a two-neuron reflex, from a spindle in a muscle back to the muscle fibers of the same muscle.
slide27

Figure 4.5 Diagram illustrating how impulses from a cutaneous receptor reach an effector (skeletal muscle) by a three-neuron arc at the level of entrance.

figure 4 6 structural relations of innervation of the human labyrinth
Figure 4.6 Structural relations of innervation of the human labyrinth.

Anterior semicircular canal

Vestibular nerve

Posterior

semicircular canal

Auditory nerve

Lateral semicircular canal

Cochlea

Utricle (otoliths are within the utricle)

Saccule

slide31

Figure 4.9 The areas of the human cerebral cortex involved in the extrapyramidal system. In the frontal lobe are areas 4, 6, and 8. In the post central region are areas 1, 2, 3, and 5. Down in the temporal lobe, area 22 is concerned in the extrapyramidal pathways.