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Chapter 12 Gases. Properties of Gases Gas Pressure. Gases. What gases are important for each of the following: O 2 , CO 2 and/or He? A. B. C. D. Gases. What gases are important for each of the following: O 2 , CO 2 and/or He?

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chapter 12 gases
Chapter 12 Gases

Properties of Gases

Gas Pressure

LecturePLUS Timberlake

gases
Gases

What gases are important for each of the following: O2, CO2 and/or He?

A. B. C. D.

LecturePLUS Timberlake

gases3
Gases

What gases are important for each of the following: O2, CO2 and/or He?

A. CO2 B. O2/CO2 C. O2 D. He

LecturePLUS Timberlake

some gases in our lives
Some Gases in Our Lives

Air:

oxygen O2 nitrogen N2 ozone O3

argon Ar carbon dioxide CO2 water H2O

Noble gases:

helium He neon Ne krypton Kr xenon Xe

Other gases:

fluorine F2 chlorine Cl2 ammonia NH3

methane CH4 carbon monoxide CO

nitrogen dioxide NO2 sulfur dioxide SO2

LecturePLUS Timberlake

the nature of gases
The Nature of Gases
  • Gases are compressible

Why can you put more air in a tire, but can’t add more water to a glass full of water?

  • Gases have low densities

Dsolid or liquid = 2 g/mL

Dgas 2 g/L

LecturePLUS Timberlake

nature of gases
Nature of Gases

1. Why does a round balloon

become spherical when filled

with air?

2. Suppose we filled this room halfway with water. Where would pressure be exerted?

LecturePLUS Timberlake

nature of gases7
Nature of Gases
  • Gases fill a container completely and uniformly
  • Gases exert a uniform pressure on all inner surfaces of their containers

LecturePLUS Timberlake

kinetic theory of gases
Kinetic Theory of Gases

The particles in gases

  • Are very far apart
  • Move very fast in straight lines until they collide
  • Have no attraction (or repulsion)
  • Move faster at higher temperatures

LecturePLUS Timberlake

barometers
Barometers

760 mmHg

atm

pressure

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check g1
Learning Check G1

A.The downward pressure of the Hg in a barometer is _____ than (as) the weight of the atmosphere.

1) greater 2) less 3) the same

B.A water barometer has to be 13.6 times taller than Hg barometer (DHg = 13.6 g/mL)

because

1) H2O is less dense 2) Hg is heavier

3) air is more dense than H2O

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution g1
Solution G1

A.The downward pressure of the Hg in a barometer is 3) the same (as) the weight of the atmosphere.

B.A water barometer has to be 13.6 times taller than Hg barometer (DHg = 13.6 g/mL)

because

1) H2O is less dense

LecturePLUS Timberlake

pressure
Pressure

One atmosphere (1 atm)

  • Is the average pressure of the atmosphere at sea level
  • Is the standard of pressure
  • P = Force

Area

1.00 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check g2
Learning Check G2

When you drink through a straw you reduce the pressure in the straw. Why does the liquid go up the straw?

1) the weight of the atmosphere pushes it

2) the liquid is at a lower level

3) there is empty space in the straw

Could you drink a soda this way on the moon?

1) yes 2) no 3) maybe

Why or why not?

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution g2
Solution G2

When you drink through a straw you reduce the pressure in the straw. Why does the liquid go up the straw?

1) the weight of the atmosphere pushes it

3) there is empty space in the straw

Could you drink a soda this way on the moon?

2) no

Why or why not? Low atmospheric pressure

LecturePLUS Timberlake

types of pressure units
Types of Pressure Units

Pressure Used in

760 mm Hg or 760 torr Chemistry

14.7 lb/in.2 U.S. pressure gauges

29.9 in. Hg U.S. weather reports

101.3 kPa (kilopascals) Weather in all countries except U.S.

1.013 bars Physics and astronomy

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check g3
Learning Check G3

A. What is 475 mm Hg expressed in atm?

1) 475 atm 2) 0.625 atm 3) 3.61 x 105 atm

B. The pressure of a tire is measured as 29.4 psi.

What is this pressure in mm Hg?

1) 2.00 mm Hg

2) 1520 mm Hg

3) 22,300 mm Hg

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution g3
Solution G3

A. What is 475 mm Hg expressed in atm?

485 mm Hg x 1 atm = 0.625 atm (B)

760 mm Hg

B. The pressure of a tire is measured as 29.4 psi.

What is this pressure in mm Hg?

29.4 psi x 1.00 atm x 760 mm Hg = 1520 mm Hg

14.7 psi 1.00 atm (B)

LecturePLUS Timberlake