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Announcements

Announcements

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Announcements

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  1. Announcements • Exams- • Extra Credit - • Lab 5 - Lymphatic System

  2. Lecture Overview • Lymphatic System and Components • What is lymph and how does it travel? • General Immune Reaction- Inflammation • What is one function of the cells carried in lymph? • Selected Topics in Immunity

  3. Lymphatic System • Absorbs excess fluid from the tissues • Returns this fluid to the circulatory system or the heart • Additional function in Immunity

  4. Components of the Lymphatic System • Lymph • Lymphatic Tissue • Lymphatic Vessels • Thymus • Bone Marrow • Spleen

  5. Lymph The clear fluid absorbed by the lymphatic system Lymphatic Tissue Clusters of Lymphocytes and macrophages Lymph

  6. Lymphatic Tissue • Malt: (Mucosa Associated Lymphatic Tissue) • Diffuse array of lymphocytes found along body passages in mucous membranes. • Examples of malt: lining of the stomach and respiratory tract • Lymph nodules: • Dense clusters of Lymphocytes • Transient: pop up during infection

  7. Lymphatic Vessels • Carry and Transport Lymph and proteins • Similar Structure to veins • Tunica Interna: Thin inner lining and valves • Tunica Media: Elastic fibers and Smooth Muscle • Tunica Externa: Thin Outer Layer

  8. Lymphatic Filters • Lymph Nodes- Screen and FilterLymphfor infectious particles • Spleen- Screen and FilterBlood for old, dead cells and infectious particles

  9. Subclavian 2 collecting Trunks 6 Lymphatic Trunks More Collecting Vessels Lymph Nodes Collecting Vessels Lymphatic Vessels

  10. Lymphatic Movement • No pump • Rhythmic contraction of the lymph vessels • Skeletal Muscles • How is backflow prevented?

  11. Immune Cell Generators • Bone Marrow- Makes B- Cells • Thymus- Makes T- Cells

  12. Thymus

  13. Break for Dynamic Human

  14. Inflammation • Non-specific response to tissue trauma or infection

  15. 4 signs of Inflammation

  16. 4 signs of Inflammation • Redness • Swelling • Heat • Pain • What’s the purpose of pain?

  17. Purpose of Inflammation • Remove Invading Pathogens • Remove Debris of Damaged Tissues • Initiate Tissue Repair

  18. Mediators of Inflammation • Chemical Messengers • Leukocyte

  19. Chemical Messengers • Released by mast cells in response to damage • Bradykinin, Histamine, and Leukotrienes • Increases Local Blood Flow to distressed area • Stimulates Vasodilation • Increases Permeability of Capillaries • What’s Accomplished?

  20. Chemical Messengers • Bradykinin, Histamine, and Leukotrienes • Increases Local Blood Flow • Stimulates Vasodilation • Increases Permeability of Capillaries • What’s Accomplished? • Heats area causes redness and swelling • Dilutes toxins and helps Remove waste • Supplies oxygen and nutrients for tissue repair

  21. Pain Response • Purpose? • Causes?

  22. Pain Response • Purpose? Prevents further injury to area. • Causes? • Direct Nerve Damage • Pressure from Swelling • Chemical Stimulation particularly bradykinin

  23. Leukocyte Deployment • Leukocyte: any white blood cell including T cells, B cells, granulocytes, platelets, basophils, mast cells, monocytes and macrophages • Leukocytes Migrate toward inflammed area • Why? TO KILL and RECRUIT

  24. Leukocyte Deployment • Leukocytes Migrate to inflammed tissue • How? 1. Margination or pavementing: To migrate to the wall of a capillary 2. Diapedesis: Passage of blood cells through vessel wall into tissue 3. Chemotaxis: Movement of a cell towards or away a chemical source

  25. What do the leukocytes plan to do? • Phagocytosis: release of toxic chemicals • Recruit more leukocytes

  26. Phagocytosis • Leukocytes consume and destroy foreign invaders and dead cells • Ejected as Pus

  27. Break for Dynamic Human

  28. Selected Topics in Immunity