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1726 Stephen Hales first measures blood pressure in a horse. 1796 Edward Jenner develops the world's first vaccine, against smallpox. Critics express skepticism, calling it ungodly to inoculate people with material from cows. . 1885 Louis Pasteur develops a vaccine for rabies.
1796Edward Jenner develops the world's first vaccine, against smallpox. Critics express skepticism, calling it ungodly to inoculate people with material from cows.
vac • cine /noun /From the Latin vaccinus, meaning "from cows"
1881Louis Pasteur proves the germ theory of disease by inoculating sheep against anthrax.
1902Robert Ross wins the Nobel Prize for his work, using pigeons, showing how malaria is transmitted
1964Dr. Michael DeBakey performs the first coronary bypass surgery using techniques perfected on animals
1982Prions are discovered in hamsters. Subsequent studies in mice have shown that these misshaped, disease-causing proteins can be inherited
They must comply with detailed record-keeping and waiting-period requirements.
USDA conducts unannounced inspections of dealers and research facilities for compliance to help ensure research animals are not missing pets.
The use of animals in product safety testing provides a whole, living system that can reflect how certain substances will react in or on the body.
It is common to hear animal activists claiming that scientists can do "anything they want" to laboratory animals without justification.
Activists also imply that there is an endless supply of research dollars, and that scientists can qualify for funding simply by contriving an animal experiment that has not been tried in the past.
Must scrutinize all proposed animal experiments.
The committee must include at least one person who is unaffiliated with the institution and one veterinarian.
Researchers proposing a procedure must explain to the committee in writing the number of animals they plan to use, why a certain species is necessary, and what steps will be taken to prevent unnecessary suffering.
The committee has the power to reject any research proposal and stop ongoing projects if it believes USDA standards are not being met.
The scientific community advocates the highest quality of animal care and treatment for two key reasons.
ALF (Animal Liberation Front)
Classified as a terrorist organization by the Federal Government
Animal Welfare Act
Enforced by USDA
Public Health Service
Major funder of research
Enforces rules for mice, rats, etc.
Institutions must file (and update annually) Animal Welfare Assurances with the NIH office.
Documentation of institutional commitment
Description of the animal care and use program
Implementation procedures.Animal Rights vs. Animal Welfare
Foundation for Biomedical Research and its website