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A Summary Overview of the Blackhawk Wind Turbine. 3/4/10 B. Boatner,EE Lead Engineer/Partner The Blackhawk Project, LLC Boise, ID. The Blackhawk Wind Turbine. What is the VAWT/AR*? (*Vertical Axis Wind Turbine w/ Articulating Rotor). A new sub-class of VAWT

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A summary overview of the blackhawk wind turbine l.jpg

A Summary Overviewof theBlackhawk Wind Turbine


B. Boatner,EE

Lead Engineer/Partner

The Blackhawk Project, LLC

Boise, ID

What is the vawt ar vertical axis wind turbine w articulating rotor l.jpg
What is the VAWT/AR*?(*Vertical Axis Wind Turbine w/ Articulating Rotor)

  • A new sub-class of VAWT

  • Uses rotor tilt to control AOA (Angle of Attack)

  • The first major technological breakthrough since the Darrieus patent (1931), complying with the Betz Equations.

  • Combination of helicopter rotor head and wind turbine design

  • Result of 7 years of research

  • No directly related prior art in USPTO

  • U.S. Patent #7,677,862

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The Betz Theorem – 1929The “Bible” of wind turbine design

  • Maximum theoretical efficiency = 59.6%

  • Slow incoming air mass by no more than 1/3

  • Minimize solidity quotient

  • Maximize Tip Speed Ratio (TSR)

  • Bottom Line: Least number of blades traveling at a maximum possible speed

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From Patent Application:2-Bladed and 3-Bladed variations shown

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How does the VAWT/AR work?

  • Wind causes Rotor Tilt

  • Rotor Tilt sets Airfoil Angle of Attack (AOA)

  • Airfoil AOA creates Aerodynamic Lift

  • Aerodynamic Lift creates Rotation/Torque

  • Self-corrects for gyroscopic precession.

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Action of wind (403,404) against the side of the airfoils (405, 406)causes tilting force (409) on the rotor arm (401).

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When the rotor (18) tilts, the stationary pushrods (41, 42) causethe airfoils (11, 12) to change angles due to different radii.

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Operating characteristics cause

  • Very high torque due to long moment arms

  • Large working areas for more power

  • Dynamic response to wind and load conditions

  • Self-limiting to prevent run-aways

  • No external wind alignment mechanics

  • Self-starting at low wind speeds

  • Very quiet compared to most turbines

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Blackhawk AFPMG* cause(*Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Generator)

  • 12, 24 or 48 Volts

  • Full charging voltage at very low speed

  • Operating range 40 – 120 RPM

  • 1.5 KW potential output

  • Non-cogging design allows easy start-up

  • Self cooling

  • No brushes or slip rings

  • In-house design

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Generator Design: causeExpertise and Experience Gained

  • Unable to identify OEM source for low-speed transmission-less design: “it can’t be done”.

  • Design analysis of multiple generators and mathematical performance modeling produced initial successful design – 40 RPM cut-in.

  • With field-verified results, we are now able to easily produce any size/configuration/speed variation needed.

  • That makes us a leader in the field.

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AFPMG Components cause(L) Magnet Wheel (1 of 2), and (R) Stator

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Electronics cause

  • 20+ years Silicon Valley Electrical Engineering microcontroller hardware/software design experience

  • “The Limiter” allows user to set RPM limit and time-out period for very high wind conditions (currently in field use).

  • “The Governor”: upgrade of “The Limiter” that will use PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) to intelligently control loads (designed - not yet implemented)

  • MPPT: proprietary Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm will dynamically match loads to varying wind conditions for optimal efficiency (designed – not yet implemented)

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Blackhawk Electronics cause

Limiter PCB

Power Control Cabinet

Limiter Control Unit

Precision Test Loads

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Clockwise from top left: Grand View, ID; Wells Fargo Bldg, Boise;Clarkston, WA; CAES Idaho Falls; Emmett

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Proof-of-Concept: Boise;Critical Design Targets Achieved

  • System is reliably self-starting

  • System is stable under varying wind conditions

  • System is quiet & aesthetically pleasing

  • System has survived 100+ MPH winds

  • System is easy to manufacture & assemble

  • System is easy to transport and erect

  • System is reliably producing power

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Design Variations: Boise;The Rapid Deployment Concept

  • Configuration possible with VAWT/AR design

  • Folds up like an umbrella

  • Less than 5 minute deployment/furling

  • Can be combined with extensive emergency battery backup power on a trailer

  • Military and emergency potential usage

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Blackhawk RD-10 Boise;Rapid Deployment Device

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Blackhawk RD-10 Boise;Rapid Deployment Sequence

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Quiet operation… Boise;

  • Endless aesthetic possibilities…

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Status of Intellectual Property Boise;

  • U.S. Utility Patent application 12/7/06

  • Patent pending Australia/New Zealand

  • No prior art found representing tilt vs. AOA control methods

  • I.P. owned by The Blackhawk Project, LLC: 50% Bruce Boatner, 50% Pat Large

  • U.S. Patent #7,677,862 issuance notification 3/2/10

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Our current staff Boise;

  • Bruce Boatner, EE: Inventor, Partner, Lead Engineer

  • Dawn Cardwell: Project Manager

  • Pat Large: Business Partner

  • Randy Peterson: Technician

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Project Requirements Boise;For Production

  • Product engineering

  • Design engineering support

  • Manufacturing engineering

  • Materials analysis

  • Manufacturing logistics & capital

  • Testing & Certification

  • Marketing strategy

  • Accounting & other overhead

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Inter-Disciplinary Research Efforts at INL/CAES* Boise;

(* Idaho Nat’l Laboratory, Center for Advanced Energy Studies)

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[email protected] Boise; (925) 695-5469