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A Holistic & Global Look at Body Art (Body Piercing & Tattooing). Myrna L. Armstrong RN, Ed.D, FAAN Professor & Regional Dean, Highland Lakes Campus. Research Goals (1990-Present). Describe the phenomenon Determine risks (physical & psychosocial) Promote informed decision-making

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a holistic global look at body art body piercing tattooing

A Holistic & GlobalLook at Body Art(Body Piercing &Tattooing)

Myrna L. Armstrong

RN, Ed.D, FAAN

Professor & Regional Dean,

Highland Lakes Campus

research goals 1990 present
Research Goals (1990-Present)
  • Describe the phenomenon
  • Determine risks (physical & psychosocial)
  • Promote informed decision-making
  • Research team since 1999
research
Research
  • Participants
  • Women
  • Adolescents
  • Soldiers
  • College students
historically
Historically
  • Bible
  • Slaves
  • Holocaust
  • Blood Typing in US for War
  • Transplants – sole of foot
trends
Trends . . .
  • Mainstream activity
  • Popularity sweeping the world
  • Media describe as risqué, carefree behavior
  • More creativity, especially piercing
  • Movement toward branding, suspensions, implants
an artist customer regulated business with
An artist-customer regulated business with:
  • No money-back guarantee
  • government testing
  • samples with the procedure
  • Limited regulations and controls
  • AND, blood-borne disease potential.
why body art
Why? Body Art
  • Self-Identity
    • “makes me feel good,

special, unique”

Other reasons

Affiliation

Marking special occasions

Religious markings

body piercing
Body Piercing . . . .
  • Rate 33-50%
  • Not a difficult procedure
  • Hollow, lancet-point needle, 12-16 gauge
  • Jewelry should be Gold, Niobium, Platinum, Stainless Steel, or Titanium
  • Skin and site infections are common 17-28%
  • Removal: client-centered, usually scar tissue
major concerns with body piercing
Major concerns with body piercing:
  • The artist
  • The equipment
  • The environment
  • The invasive procedure (jewelry, technique) and after care.
risks
Risks??
  • Lack of documented risks does not mean risks do not exist, rather just not reported.
recommendation for piercing
Recommendation for Piercing
  • Studio vs mall
  • Piercing guns:
  • Research/literature
  • Should be outlawed, but strong lobbyist action
  • Unable to sterilize
  • Crush surrounding tissue
  • Need further research
complete site healing
“Complete” site healing
  • Phase I Immediate
  • Phase II 6-10 months. Skin inside hole epithelializes
  • Phase III A year or longer. Hole “toughens up”
  • Continual portal for organisms
body piercing13
Body Piercing
  • Infections occur because:
    • The individual’s health
    • Contaminated procedure (hepatitis B & C)
    • Poor after-care
    • Type of jewelry
removing jewelry
?????Removing jewelry????
  • Infections: Obstacle or portal for drainage
  • Procedures: Teflon post, suture, fishing line
  • Remember, you haven’t removed the reason they have it
organisms treatment
Organisms & treatment

Organisms:

Staphyloccus aureus

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

B-hemolytic streptocci

Treatment

Dicloxacillin, clindamycin

Ciprofloxacin (only >18 years of age)

systemic infections
Systemic Infections
  • Occur because:
  • Previous health conditions
  • i.e. endocarditis
  • Untimely medical attention Limited attention by health care provider
cartilaginous ear piercing
Cartilaginous ear piercing
  • Includes pinna, helix, and tragus
  • Area prone to infections
  • Left untreated,
  • necrotizing lesions,
  • deformities
  • Body image concerns
naval piercings
Naval piercings:
  • Site appeals to many, “invisible”
  • Often self-inflicted
  • Up to 45% infected
  • Clothing, sweat, and
  • “fuzzies” problems
  • Pregnancy
tongue piercings
Tongue piercings:
  • American Dental Association
  • Aspiration, tooth, or nerve damage
  • Tend to “play” with jewelry
  • Speech difficulties
  • Other oral sites- lip & labaret
  • Gly-oxide ©, non-alcohol mouthwash
nipple piercing
Nipple piercing
  • Different piercing sites for females & males
  • Infected or scarred
  • lactation ducts?
  • Avoid tight,
  • restrictive clothing
  • Breastfeeding
genital piercing
Genital Piercing

Limited data/many myths

Various piercings for males & females.

  • Major reason:
  • Sexual Enhancement
  • Women: also reclaim body w/ rape & abuse
variety of male genital piercings
Variety of Male Genital Piercings

Ampallang

Apadravya

Guiche

Prince Albert

Dydoe

Hafada

Foreskin

creativity vs self mutilation
Creativity vs self-mutilation
  • Beyond usual sites
  • Lack of knowledge regarding location
  • For example: vulva, chest, knuckles, 3-D implants
tattooing
Tattooing . . .
  • Multiple injections of pigment:
  • (non-FDA approved, “lack of purity/identity,”
  • i.e. car paint and printer’s ink)
  • 50 to 3,000 times per minute
  • 1/64 to 1/16th deep to epidermis junction
  • using 1 to 14 solid needles on a single bar
  • Both body and cosmetic tattooing popular
tattooing25
Tattooing . . .
  • Transcends gender,
  • socioeconomic
  • groups and
  • occupations.
  • Incidence:
  • 13-17 years old = 15-19%
  • 18-30 years old = 19-25%
major concerns
Major concerns
  • The artist
  • The equipment
  • The environment
  • The invasive procedure (pigment, technique) and after care.
adolescents with tattoos
Adolescents with tattoos
  • Can be amateur or studio tattooing
  • Some start at an early age, tend to have impulsive decision-making, group pressure, undue stress/crisis, and lack of support.
  • Select unconcealed sites and big designs.
adolescents with tattoos28
Adolescents with tattoos . . . .
  • Dissonance w/ self-identity vs deviancy
  • Believe they have a right to a tattoo
  • Determined, will obtain, regardless of costs, regulations, or risks
influences
Influences
  • Image – yes
  • Identity – yes
  • Friends – yes
  • Family - no
tattooing after care problems
Tattooing, after care/problems
  • Risks are limited, but present
  • Reactions to pigment
  • Photosensitivity
  • Hepatitis B and C
  • Psychosocial concerns
tattoo removal
Tattoo Removal
  • “semi "permanent (“2 x 2” cost = $50, removal = $1250 ++)
  • Costly and time consuming
  • Need the right equipment, BUT
  • Pigment: (non-FDA approved, “lack of purity/identity”)
  • Black/blue tattoos – satisfactory response
  • Yellow, red, green - challenge
tattoo removal32
Tattoo Removal
  • Freedom2Ink-designed by MD, removal 100%
  • Two studies re “Motivation for Removal”
  • Recent study: more women because of more negative comments home, work & school.
  • Suggest strategic placement for control
cosmetic tattooing
Cosmetic Tattooing
  • Very popular – all ages 20-90++
  • Check the Yellow Pages
  • Eyebrows, eyelids & lip liner
  • “Natural appearance
  • Limited literature and complications
tattooing in prisons
Tattooing in Prisons
  • More research done outside of US
  • Difficult to conduct here in US.
  • Illegal activity, high risk population
  • Recent research: 58% of those tattoo were HCV antibody-positive.
  • Many use same needle and/or ink
  • Type of products used for needle and ink
  • Question of “prison tattooists”
branding
Branding . . .
  • Many non-traditional objects used, (coat hangers, paper clips, etc)
  • Thin strips of surgical stainless steel

Several “strikes” are done, infections are common

applicable health education
Applicable health education:
  • Their belief: a right to have body art
  • Encourage belief of self ever-changing.
  • Emphasize direct involvement
  • with health decisions and
  • informed decision-making.
  • Removal-applicable approaches
your response
YOUR Response
  • Non-judgmental approach from ALL
  • Procurement “without” our blessing
  • Avoid “no” and scare tactics
  • Learn as much as you can
  • Demonstrate we know our stuff!!
  • Proactive education