A brief history of programming languages. Read the textbook (Chapter 2—all of it!) for a thorough discussion of this fascinating subject. In class we will only discuss the milestones. Pioneers of programming.
Those are machine languages and assembly languages, machine-dependent coding systems. They were initially fully binary, and then symbolic.
There is one native machine language, and usually one assembly language per processor model.Upward compatibility can be a nightmare. Was moving from 386 to 486 painless? From 486 to Pentium?
Fortran was the first effectively implemented high-level language that introduced variables as we know them now, loops, procedures, statement labels and much more.
The earliest versions of Fortran had many unique features, often awkward, later kept along for compatibility. It is still widely used in engineering applications that require much array manipulation.
The newest version, Fortran 90, has converged toward other popular programming languages.