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  1. How to Use This Presentation • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” • To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. • From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. • From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. • You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

  2. Resources Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep

  3. Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Table of Contents Section 1 Echinoderms Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates

  4. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Objectives • Discussfour distinguishing characteristics of echinoderms. • Describerepresentative species from each of the five classes of echinoderms. • Describethe water-vascular system and other major body systems of echinoderms. • Comparesexual and asexual reproduction in sea stars.

  5. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Characteristics • Echinoderms are radially symmetricaldeuterostomes. • Most living species of echinoderms are motile, but some are sessile. • Most echinoderms have: • pentaradial symmetry • an endoskeleton made up of ossicles • a water-vascular system • tube feet

  6. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Classification • There are about 7,000 species of echinoderms. • There are five major classes of echinoderms: • Crinoidea • Ophiuroidea • Echinoidea • Holothuroidea • Asteroidea

  7. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Classification, continued Class Crinoidea • Members of the class Crinoidea, called crinoids, include the sea lilies and feather stars. • In both types of crinoids, five arms extend from the body and branch to form many more arms—up to 200 in some feather star species.

  8. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Classification, continued Class Ophiuroidea • The 2,000 species of basket stars and brittle stars make up the largest echinoderm class, Ophiuroidea, which means “snake-tail.” • Members of this class are distinguished by their long, narrow arms, which allow them to move more quickly than other echinoderms.

  9. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Classification, continued Class Echinoidea • The class Echinoidea consists of about 900 species of sea urchins and sand dollars. • Echinoidea means “spinelike.” • The internal organs are enclosed within a fused, rigid endoskeleton called a test.

  10. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Classification, continued Class Holothuroidea • Sea cucumbers belong to the class Holothuroidea. • Holothuroidea means “water polyp.” • Most of these armless echinoderms live on the sea bottom, where they crawl or burrow into soft sediment by using their tube feet.

  11. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Classification, continued Class Asteroidea • The sea stars, or starfish, belong to the class Asteroidea, which means “starlike.” • Sea stars are economically important because they prey on oysters, clams, and other organisms that humans use as food.

  12. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Structure and Function of Echinoderms External Structure • The body of a sea star is composed of several arms that extend from a central region. Two rows of tube feet run along the underside of each arm. • The side of the body where the mouth is located is referred to as the oral surface. The opposite side is called the aboralsurface. • The body of a sea star is usually covered with short spines. Surrounding each spine in many sea stars are numerous tiny pincers called pedicellariae.

  13. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Structure and Function of Echinoderms, continued Water-Vascular System • The water-vascular system is a network of water-filled canals that are connected to the tube feet. • This coordinated system enables sea stars to climb slippery rocks and capture prey. • Water enters through the madreporite, passes down the stone canal to the ring canal, then through the radial canal to the end of each arm and to the tube feet. • The upper end of each tube foot is a bulblike sac called an ampulla.

  14. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Structure and Function of Echinoderms, continued Feeding and Digestion • The sea star can turn its cardiac stomach inside out through its mouth when it feeds. • The cardiac stomach transfers food to the pyloric stomach, which connects to a pair of digestive glands in each arm. • Most sea stars are carnivorous.

  15. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Structure and Function of Echinoderms, continued Other Body Systems • Like other echinoderms, the sea star has no circulatory, excretory, or respiratory organ systems. • The nervous system consists mainly of a nerve ring and a radial nerve that runs along each arm.

  16. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Structure and Function of Echinoderms, continued Reproduction and Development • Most echinoderms have separate sexes. • Each arm of the sea star contains a pair of ovaries or testes. • Fertilization occurs externally in water. • Each fertilized egg develops into a bilaterally symmetrical, free-swimming larva called a bipinnaria. • Echinoderms have remarkable powers of regeneration.

  17. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Anatomy of a Sea Star

  18. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Characteristics of Echinoderms

  19. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Pentaradial Symmetry

  20. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Water Vascular System

  21. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Anatomy of a Sea Star

  22. Section 1 Echinoderms Chapter 38 Types of Echinoderms

  23. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Objectives • Listthe major characteristics of chordates. • Describethe evolution and classification of invertebrate chordates. • Describethe structure of lancelets. • Describethe structure of tunicates.

  24. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Characteristics • Chordates, phylum Chordata, are characterized by having a notochord. • In most vertebrates, the notochord is present in embryos but reduced in adults. • In addition, all chordates have the following characteristics during some stage of their life: • a dorsal nerve cord • pharyngeal pouches • a postanal tail

  25. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Evolution and Classification • Echinoderms and chordates likely evolved from a common ancestor. • The phylum Chordata is divided into three subphyla: • Vertebrata • Cephalochordata • Urochordata

  26. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Evolution and Classification, continued Subphylum Cephalochordata • The subphylum Cephalochordata contains about two dozen species of lancelets. • Lancelets retain their notochord, dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches, and postanal tail throughout their life. • Lancelets feed by filtering water through the slits in the pharynx. The water leaves the body through the atriopore.

  27. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Evolution and Classification, continued Subphylum Urochordata • The subphylum Urochordata contains about 2,000 species commonly called tunicates or sea squirts. • As adults, most tunicates are sessile, barrel-shaped filter feeders that live on the sea bottom. They may be solitary or colonial. • Tunicates are hermaphrodites.

  28. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Lancelet Interior

  29. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Exploration of a Lancelet

  30. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Adult Tunicate

  31. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Characteristics of Invertebrate Chordates

  32. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Parts of a Chordate

  33. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Anatomy of a Lancelet

  34. Section 2 Invertebrate Chordates Chapter 38 Anatomy of a Tunicate

  35. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice 1. In a sea star, gas exchange and excretion of wastes take place by diffusion through which of the following structures? A. pharynx B. skin gills C. atriopore D. radial canals

  36. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 1. In a sea star, gas exchange and excretion of wastes take place by diffusion through which of the following structures? A. pharynx B. skin gills C. atriopore D. radial canals

  37. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following types of symmetry is characteristic of echinoderms? F. biradial G. bilateral H. pentaradial J. pentalateral

  38. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. Which of the following types of symmetry is characteristic of echinoderms? F. biradial G. bilateral H. pentaradial J. pentalateral

  39. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following classes of echinoderms most closely resembles the fossils of ancient echinoderms? A. Crinoidea B. Asteroidea C. Echinoidea D. Holothuroidea

  40. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following classes of echinoderms most closely resembles the fossils of ancient echinoderms? A. Crinoidea B. Asteroidea C. Echinoidea D. Holothuroidea

  41. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 4. Which of the following is found in adult tunicates, or sea squirts? F. eyespot G. notochord H. spinal cord J. pharynx with slits

  42. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 4. Which of the following is found in adult tunicates, or sea squirts? F. eyespot G. notochord H. spinal cord J. pharynx with slits

  43. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The illustration below shows a sea star and a sand dollar. Use the illustration to answer the question that follows.

  44. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 5. To which phylum do these animals belong? A. Chordata B. Vertebrata C. Arthropoda D. Echinodermata

  45. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 5. To which phylum do these animals belong? A. Chordata B. Vertebrata C. Arthropoda D. Echinodermata

  46. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 6. Cardiac stomach : digestion :: atriopore : F. excretion G. respiration H. circulation J. reproduction

  47. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 6. Cardiac stomach : digestion :: atriopore : F. excretion G. respiration H. circulation J. reproduction

  48. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued The diagram below shows a lancelet. Use the diagram to answer the question that follows.

  49. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 7. Which four structures are the main distinguishing characteristics of chordates? A. 1, 2, 3, 4 B. 1, 2, 3, 8 C. 2, 3, 4, 6 D. 2, 3, 4, 9

  50. Chapter 38 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 7. Which four structures are the main distinguishing characteristics of chordates? A. 1, 2, 3, 4 B. 1, 2, 3, 8 C. 2, 3, 4, 6 D. 2, 3, 4, 9