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Using Data at the Secondary Level to Build a Pyramid of Behavior Support. GA Pyramid- The Foundation for School Improvement SSTAGE Conference September 2007 Dr. Paula Freer Karen Hodnette Program Specialist System Lead SST Chair Metro West GLRS/RESA Troup County Schools. Session Goals:.

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using data at the secondary level to build a pyramid of behavior support
Using Data at the Secondary Level to Build a Pyramid of Behavior Support
  • GA Pyramid- The Foundation for School Improvement

SSTAGE Conference

September 2007

Dr. Paula Freer Karen Hodnette

Program Specialist System Lead SST Chair

Metro West GLRS/RESA Troup County Schools

session goals
Session Goals:
  • Data and Support at each Tier
  • Using Data to Identify Needs
  • What We Know Works
  • Developing FBA/BIP as a Support Process at Tier 3/SST
solution focused framework
Solution Focused Framework

Safe, Caring,









& Commitment

to School




and Success

in School

and Life


For Learning

and Recognition

of Practice



  • Teach Behavior
  • Competencies
  • Self-awareness
  • Social awareness
  • Self-management
  • Relationship skills
  • Responsible
  • decision making

Less Risky

Behavior, More

Assets, &






Responsible decision-making




Social awareness



Framework for Student Success: Social Emotional Behavioral Instruction

Recognizing one’s emotions and values as well as one’s strengths and limitations

Making ethical, constructive

choices about personal

and social behavior

Managing emotions and

behaviors to achieve

one’s goals

Showing understanding and empathy for others

Forming positive relationships,

working in teams, dealing effectively with conflict


Implementation and Sustainability Process

A. Provide




B. Monitor


evaluate for



F. Communicate



2. Engage


and form



1. Principal


to school-

wide beh plan

3. Develop

and articulate

shared vision

10. Continue

cycle of


and improving

4. Conduct

needs and




9. Expand


and integrate



5. Develop

action plan

8. Launch SEB

instruction in


6. Select




E. Nurture


with families &


C. Develop


to support


7. Conduct

initial staff


D. Integrate





School-Wide Instructional Support


Staff Behavior








Student Behavior

positive behavior support scott 2002
Positive Behavior Support (Scott, 2002)


School-Wide AssessmentTIER 1

School-Wide Prevention Systems






Group Interventions

AnalyzeStudent Data

Interviews, Questionnaires, etc.


SpecificStudent Interventions


Observations FBA/BIP

Individualized Interventions

Team-Based Wraparound Interventions

Multi-Disciplinary Assessment & Analysis

what is the positive behavior support process
What is the Positive Behavior Support Process ?
  • A data-driven team approach with built-in accountability
    • Follows a carefully look at the context of the problem behavior
    • Hypothesizes why the behavior is occurring.
    • Develops a plan to teach the student a replacement behavior and new skills
    • Changes environments to match student needs
    • Involves people who really care about the student
    • Develops a written plan capturing the team’s decisions and methods
positive behavior supports
Positive Behavior Supports
  • What can we expect?
    • Reductions in discipline problems
    • Improved academic achievement
    • Deviant peer groups less likely to form
    • Prevent the onset, or slow the trajectory of alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, and delinquency

Intensive Intervention

  • Behavior Specialists//Psychologists
  • BEST/Coaches
  • Building Crisis Teams
  • Emergency Response Plan
  • Expulsion Intervention Counselor
  • Threat Assessment Protocol
  • The Opportunity Center
    • Parent Outreach Coordinator
    • Vocational Education Teacher
    • Parent Training Curriculum

Mesa District #51 Colorado

Positive Behavior Support:

A District Wide Continuum of behavior support

  • Universal Intervention
  • Positive Behavior Support Systems
    • Staff Training (subs, meals)
  • Community Partnership
  • Bully Proofing Programs
  • PBS District Coaches
  • Parent Training: Universal
  • PBS District Coach Training
  • Student Incentives
  • Targeted Intervention
  • BEST
  • LEAG
  • Response to Intervention
  • Why Try: Curriculum/Training
  • Parent Training: Targeted

Mesa School District Colorado

decision rules for school wide tigard tualatin schools oregon tts
Decision Rules for School-Wide Tigard Tualatin Schools, Oregon-TTS


  • If more than 20% of all students received 2 or more referrals: revisit the CORE.
  • If more than 30% of referrals occur in a specific area besides classroom (i.e., hallways): revisit CORE for that area.
  • If more than 40% of referrals occur in classrooms: have teachers re-teach school rules and associated classroom expectations.
  • More than 30% of referrals for similar reasons (e.g., aggression & fighting), re-teach school rules specific to that area and acknowledge positive behavior.


  • Office Discipline Referral Data reviewed monthly. If more than 1 referral per day per month for every 250 students, revisit the CORE.


  • Office Discipline Referral Data reviewed monthly. If more than 1 referral per day per month for every 200 students, revisit the CORE.
progress monitoring
Progress Monitoring
  • K-12: Behavior Data from Check & Connect Programs
  • K-12: More than 5 absences or more than 3 counseling or discipline referrals in a 30 day period
  • K-12: Progress on individual behavior goals or Behavior Support Plan (TTS, Oregon)
intensifying interventions
Intensifying Interventions
  • Students who receive 2 – 5 referrals should receive CORE + Second Tier Interventions
  • If progress is below the expected rate after 6 to 8 weeks of Second Tier Intervention, students move to Third Tier Intervention
  • If a student receives 6 behavior referrals, perform an appropriate Functional Behavior Assessment & develop a Behavior Support Plan (TTS, Oregon)
what works with at risk youth
What works with at-risk youth?
  • Universal screening, needs assmt, and tiers of support
  • Social and life skills instruction and support
  • Adult mentoring and case management
  • Specialized school and classroom supports
    • Academic
    • Function-based behavior support (FBA/BIP)
  • Alternative discipline
  • Parent collaboration or parent training
  • Service coordination with community agencies
  • Service learning or Community Service
persistent problems academic versus behavioral
Persistent Problems:Academic versus Behavioral
  • Academic: Assume the student learned the wrong way to do it or has been taught (inadvertently) the wrong way to perform the action.
  • Behavioral: Presume that all students are capable of behaving correctly. Assume that this youngster consciously “chooses” to misbehave and be uncooperative.
teaching behavior
Teaching Behavior
  • Teach ‘em what they don’t yet know
  • …but what and how (behaviorally speaking)?
    • Reflective decision making
    • Problem solving
    • Social skills
    • Anger management
    • Conflict resolution
    • Character education, in order to:
      • Provide a solid foundation on which to base the newly acquired social-behavior skills
      • Prevent a self-serving display of appropriate behavior
how is teaching behavior like teaching academics
How is teaching behavior like teaching academics?
  • Determine the current level of knowledge/skill.

(questioning, observation)

  • Make the learning relevant & useful to the learner.
  • Make use of present knowledge/skills.
  • Instruct, model, & provide guided practice.
  • Provide more guided practice (at least 20 successes to ingrain in memory bank) with progressively more “pressure”.~
  • Recognize effort & progress.
  • Re-teach parts with which s/he has difficulty.

(PENT, Wright-Browning; Mary Beth Hewitt, What Changes Behavior? Punishment or Remediation. Choices)

3 elements of data based decision making
3 Elements of Data-based Decision Making
  • High quality data from clear definitions, processes, & implementation (e.g., sw behavior support)
  • Efficient datastorage & manipulation system (e.g., SWIS)
  • Process for data-based decision making & action planning process (e.g., team)
kinds of data
Kinds of Data
  • Office discipline reports
  • Behavioral incidents
  • Attendance
  • Suspension/Detention
  • Observations
  • Self-assessments
  • Surveys, focus groups
  • Etc.
office discipline referral
Office Discipline Referral
  • Reflects 3 factors
    • Student
    • Staff member
    • Office
general approach big 5
General Approach: “Big 5”
  • # referrals per day per month
  • # referrals by student
  • # referrals by location
  • #/kinds of problem behaviors
  • # problem behaviors by time of day

Students per Number of Referrals

Tier 3: FBA-Functional Behavior Assessment prior to developing a Behavior Support/Intervention Plan (BIP/BSP)

Involves all those who know student

Looks for links between the environment and student behavior (interactions in class, school, instruction, home)

Why problems occur-functions the behavior serves

Testable explanations (can’t do or won’t do?)

Purpose is to get the information necessary to create a successful, measurable, documented support plan

May be developed in SST with assistance of school psychologist, behavior specialist, ….

Tools to Develop and Implement a FBA and Behavior Support Plan

Download from or

systems approach
Systems Approach
  • Organize team
  • Review data
  • Analyze, describe, & prioritize problem within context
  • Specific measurable outcome
  • Select evidence based practice
  • Provide supports for accurate sustained adoption & implementation
  • Monitor practice implementation & progress toward outcome
essential questions
Essential Questions
  • Where does the data identify needs?
  • What programs do we know that are evidence based? Which of these will impact our students?
  • What population do we target first?
  • At what level should the intervention(s) focus?
    • Analyze data
    • Identify Target Areas for Intervention
    • Develop Improvement Plan/Pyramid Tiers
    • Implement, Monitor and Evaluate
analyze data
Analyze Data
  • District and School Demographics
  • Student Performance
    • Graduation and Drop Out Rates
    • Course completion
    • AYP
  • Assessment, Curriculum, Instructional Systems
  • Current Initiatives and Partnerships
  • Professional Development
  • Parent/Family Engagement
identify target areas for intervention
Identify Target Areas for Intervention
  • Academic Content
  • Behavior (classroom mgmt, behavior support)
  • Attendance/Truancy
  • School Climate
  • Self-management (self determination, problem solving)
  • Mentoring (employment, service learning)
  • Family Engagement
develop pyramid
Develop Pyramid

Select evidence based practices

Check & Connect Coca Cola Valued Youth Program

PBS/EBIS Project Coffee

FBA/BIP Teen Outreach Program

Career Academics Program

Identify Level of Intensity- Let the Data Guide…

Tier 1-school wide

Tier 2-small group

Tier 3-small group/individual

Tier 4-individualized

implement monitor and evaluate
Implement, Monitor and Evaluate
  • Conduct baseline measures and progress monitoring at each tier
  • Implement strategies: on-site coaching, consultation/feedback
  • Manage data and evaluate outcomes
recommended web resources
Recommended Web Resources
  • SWIS data base for office referrals
  • OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports
  • Oregon Social Learning Center
  • National Drop Out Prevention Center
  • National Assoc. School Psychologists
Hamilton Fish Institute on School and Community Safety

Prevention Research Center

Strong Teens check and connect program

Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior

Recommended Web Resources

assessment resources for upper grades
Assessment Resources for Upper Grades
  • Positive Behavior Supports (PBS);;
  • (charting student progress, interventions, staff development)
conduct needs assessment
Conduct Needs Assessment
  • Incidence of Violence and Illegal Drug Use
    • California Healthy Teens
  • Risk and Protective Factors
    • Communities that care survey (Hawkins and Catalano)
    • Oregon School Safety Survey
  • Systems assessment (what do we have in place?)
    • SET (www.pbis.osg)
    • Assessing Behavior Support in Schools Survey ( )
    • PENT Tools to develop, implement, and score a behavior plan (
how do we find evidence that an assessment instrument is reliable and valid
How do we find evidence that an assessment instrument is reliable and valid?
  • Possible Sources of Information:
    • Assessment Manual
    • Technical Reports
    • Peer Reviewed Research….but you have to know how to critique the technical adequacy of the measures!
  • Expert Summaries and Analysis:
    • National Center on Progress Monitoring



Wright/ RTI Tool Kit

Browning-Wright/PENT Positve Network of Trainers, California DOE

National Drop Out Prevention Center/Ok Transition Institute

(Scott, 2002)

Tigard-Tualatin Schools, Oregon

Mesa #51 Schools, Colorado

Collaborative for Academic, Social, Emotional Learning CASEL