World War I. The Eastern Front and global involvement. Longer than the Western Front No stalemate like the Western Front, but just as deadly Trenches never really developed, more fluid troop movement 1000 miles long, so troop density was lower. Location.
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Happened at the same time as the Germans were losing the Battle of the Marne in France
Kept Russia at bay the rest of the war
Russian retreat resulted in permanent loss of land (15% of its territory)Battle of Tannenberg 1914
Purpose: to capture the capitol city of Istanbul and secure access for Russia to the Dardanelles strait (warm water port!)
An attempt by Britain andFrance to lure Greece and Bulgaria into the war on their side
Also a new front was neededsince the Western Front wasdeadlocked.The Gallipoli Campaign
Japan attacked their holdings in China and in the Pacific islands
English and French troops attacked African possessions—not well defended (Germany only recently established presence there)
Results in Africa: Germany lost all coloniesBattles in Africa and asia
Announced they would sink any ship, unannounced, that was near Britain
This was called unrestricted submarine warfare
This policy had been used before—1915, Germany sank the British passenger ship Lusitania—included 128 US citizens.
Germany had stopped this kind of warfare for awhile, but needed an edge on the Allies so they resumed it in 1917America enters the war
They lost the gamble.
Woodrow Wilson, the US President, warned Germany several times to stop unrestricted sub warfare, but 3 US ships were sunk
The US had previously kept a strict (?) non-intervention policyAmerica enters the war
Britain intercepted the note, decoded it, and passed it on to the US.
Zimmerman initially denied the note’s existence, but in a speech later tried to explain the tone was misunderstood…Zimmerman telegram
Civil unrest forced the Czar to abdicate his throne
The new government tried to stay in the war, but it was still too hard to maintain
A revolution produced another new government under Vladimir Lenin—ended Russia’s involvement in the war.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ended the war between Germany and RussiaRussia bows out
Almost to Paris, it seemed like Germany could win the whole thing, but their army was so weakened, a newly revived Allied army was able to beat them—with 140,000 new US troops
350 tanks, then 2 million more US troops arrived
One by one, Central Powers surrendered
Kaiser Wilhelm stepped down on November 9, 1918. The new government met with the French to discuss a treaty.
Armistice—agreement—signed November 11 at 11 am.End of the war