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Earth’s Climate Systems. What is the difference between weather and climate?. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at any given place. Climate is the consistent, long-term behavior of weather over time. Climate Factors. H. Statistical Analysis of 30 years of data Insolation

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what is the difference between weather and climate
What is the difference between weather and climate?
  • Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at any given place.
  • Climate is the consistent, long-term behavior of weather over time.
climate factors
Climate Factors
  • H

Statistical Analysis of 30 years of data

  • Insolation
  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Air Masses
  • Precipitation

H

L

5 climate regions
5 Climate Regions
  • Tropical
  • Dry
  • Mid latitude
  • High Latitude
  • Highlands
tropical climates
Tropical Climates
  • Tropical Wet
      • Avg temp 80 degrees F
      • Daily rain
      • 80 in/year
      • Wildlife abundant
      • Tropical rainforest veg
      • Amazon Basin, S. Am, Asia Caribbean, Africa
  • Tropical Dry
      • Dry winters, wet summers
      • High yearly temps
      • Savannas
      • Africa, central - S Am., Australia
dry climates
Dry Climates
  • Desert
      • < 10 in. rain/yr
      • Day/night temps vary
      • 1/3 of world’s land
      • Veg = scrub, cactus
      • Dunes, rocky surfaces
      • Where???
  • Steppes
      • Dry, treeless
      • 10 – 20 in. rain/year
      • Where???
mid latitude climates
Mid latitude Climates
  • Marine West Coast
      • 30 - 60 N/S
      • Western coastlines
      • Cool summers, cool damp winters
      • Veg = Coniferous, Deciduous, mixed forest
  • Mediterranean
      • Mild, rainy winters
      • hot., sunny summers
      • Veg = woody bushes, short trees,
      • Where?
slide8

Humid Subtropical

      • Short, mild winters
      • Year round rain, high humidityb/c of oceans
      • Veg = prairies, forests
      • Where?
  • Humid Continental
      • Inland locations, further N, longer harsher winters
      • Veg = Mixed forests – but evergreens out# in N
high latitude
High Latitude
  • Subarctic
      • Bitter-cold winters
      • Summers short/cool
      • > temp vary variation
      • permafrost
      • Veg = needles evergreens
  • Tundra
      • Winter darkness
      • No roots
      • Veg = Low shrub, short grasses, mosses
  • Ice Caps
      • Snow, ice 2 miles thick!
highland
Highland
  • Natural vegetation varies with elevation
  • High Mountain areas
what is the k ppen system
What is the Köppen System?
  • Widely used system that classifies climate according to:
    • annual and monthly averages of temperature
    • annual and monthly averages of precipitation
  • Devised by Walter Köppen (1846-1940); updated and modified by Köppen until his death.
  • Continues to be modified by geographers today!
k ppen s major climates
Köppen’s major climates:
  • Tropical Climates (A)
  • Dry Arid and Semiarid Climates (B)
  • Mesothermal Climates (C) – mild winter
  • Microthermal Climates (D) – severe winter
  • Polar Climates (E)
  • Highland (H)

http://www.uwmc.uwc.edu/geography/100/koppen_web/koppen_map.htm

climate subcategories
Climate subcategories
  • Each category is further divided into sub-categories based on temperature and precipitation.
  • For example, in a Dfa climate:
      • D = microthermal climate
      • f = feucht (German for “moist”)
      • a = warmest avg. summer month above 22° C
      • Dfa = humid-continental, hot-summer climate in the microthermal D category.
the k ppen system pros cons
Pros:

Uses temperature and precipitation which are easy to measure

Temperature and precipitation directly affect humans.

Corresponds with vegetation regions.

Cons:

Only uses averages which does not take into account subtle changes from place to place.

Ignores wind, cloud cover, intensity of precipitation, and humidity.

The Köppen System: Pros & Cons
climographs
Climographs
  • Graphic means of giving info on mean monthly temperature and rainfall for a select location or station
  • Usually two parts
    • Annual temperature curve (red)
    • Precipitation bars (blue)
slide18

Annual Climatology: Green Bay, WI (GRB)

Elev: 687 ft    Lat: 44o 29'N    Long: 88o 08'W

Figure 1: Average Temperatures and Precipitation 1971-2000. (NCDC Data)