ART BRUT TACHISME ART INFORMEL Jean Dubuffet urban graffiti, tribal art, and the creations of children and the insane urban graffiti, tribal art, and the creations of children and the insane. "In my paintings, I wish to recover the vision of an average and ordinary man without using techniques beyond the grasp of an ordinary man." Matériologies The driving force behind the early works was Dubuffet's entirely novel and extraordinary painting technique. He combined almost any element with the paint surface, including cement, tar, gravel, leaves, silver foil, dust and even butterfly wings. Dubuffet created clotted surfaces by mixing oil paint with grit and urban detritus. ‘Art should be born from the materials and, spiritually, should borrow its language from it. Each material has its own language so there is no need to make it serve a language.'
Smiling Face (La Bouche en croissant) 1948Oil and sand on canvas. 36 x 28 1/2 in Dhotel nuance d'abricot, 1947, O/C, 45 x 35” “Personally, I believe very much in values of savagery; I mean: instinct, passion, mood, violence, madness."
The Cow with the Subtle Nose, 1954 oil and enamel on canvas, 35 x 45”
Lever de lune aux fantômes (moonrise with ghosts) 1951 oil on isorel, 23.6 x 28.7 in
Hourloupe 1962 to 1974 "The word Hourloupe was the title of a small book recently published and in which figured, with a text in jargon, reproductions of drawings using red and blue ballpoint pens. I associate it, by assonance, to " hurler " (to roar), to " hululer " (to hoot), to " loup " (wolf), to " Riquet à la Houppe " and the title of Maupassant's book " Le Horla " inspired by mental instability. " " One expects a painting to open new pathways to how we look at our everyday life (...) Now it is necessary to become conscious of what we take as real and that what strongly appears to us as such (as such alone) is nothing more than an arbritary interpretation of things to which can be as well substituted by another. The distinction that we make between real and imaginary is badly founded. The interpretation of real, which seems to us vericious, irrefutable, is only an invention of our spirit, or say rather, an antique invention collectively adopted and of which our spirit is persuaded of. Nothing other than convention. It is not forbidden to imagine the interpretation of a world deciphered differently, regulated differently, than those which we have held until now in full confidence. The cycle of works which has been given the name L'Hourloupe answers an undertaking of that sort... "
A new use of line/perspectural ambiguity Retardation of seeing (readings rather than recognition) Rue de l'Entourloupe (Entourloupe Street) 1963
Jean Dubuffet used a hot wire to sculpt models from a block of polystyrene with as much " liberty and ease as a pencil gliding over paper “ Later, he transferred and molded from polystyrene to epoxy resin.
Cabinet Logologique, 1967-1969 “The Logologique Office is the subjective universe as it appears to me digested by my thinking; or, in other words : The Logologique Officeis like a fish that would itself secrete the water in which it swims.”
Closerie Falbala Epoxy resin and concrete with polyurethane paints built between 1971 and 1973 (and altered in 1976) Surface area 1610 m2, highest point 8 m Jean Dubuffet Foundation, Périgny-sur-Yerres, Val-de-Marne (France)
Group of Four Trees epoxy resin with polyurethane paints, 12 m.made in 1972 after a 1970 model Chase Manhattan Plaza, New York (USA) Monument au fantômeepoxy resin with polyurethane paints 10 mMade in 1983 after a 1969 modelInterfirst Plaza, Houston, Texas (USA)
Jean Fautrier Head of a hostage no. 1 1944Mixed media on paper mounted on linen14 x 10 1/2 in. (35.6 x 26.7 cm)
Jean Fautrier Head of a Hostage, No. 14, 1944Oil on paper13 3/4 x 10 1/2 in. (34.9 x 26.7 cm)
Jean Fautrier Head of a Hostage 1943-4Tête d'otageLead and slateobject: 540 x 295 x 310 mm, 25.2 kg
Lucio Fontana Movimento Spaziale The manipulation of space and its interaction with two and three dimensional form was his greatest contributions to 20th century art. • founder of Spatialism • Precursor of environmental art, performance art, • land artand Arte Povera. "Luce spaziale", 1951, neon structure, IX Triennale, Milan, Italy
Lucio Fontana Buchi (‘holes’), beginning in 1949 Concetto spaziale (spacial concept) 1950 - 1953 Aniline and glass on natural burlap 31 1/2 x 25 5/8 inches 80.5 x 65 cm
Lucio Fontana Concetto spaziale Executed in 1951-52 'l. Fontana' (lower right) painted terracotta 9 1/8 x 11in
Concetto spaziale 1957 gouache and graphite on board 19 x 26 3/4 inches
Concetto spaziale 1958 ink and graphite on canvas 39 x 31 inches
Concetto Spaziale, Natura bronze sculptures 1959-60
Lucio Fontana Tagli (‘slashes’) from the mid-1950s
Lucio Fontana Concetto Spatiale 1959 100 x 125 cm.
Lucio Fontana "an art for the Space Age" Concetto Spaziale 1964 waterpaint and oil on canvas 55 x 46 cm
Francis Bacon Francis Bacon Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion (1944) oil paint and pastel on Sundeala fibre board 94 cm × 74 cm (37 in × 29 in)
Francis Bacon Study of a nude1952-3oil on canvas
Velasquez Innocent Xc. 1650 Study After Velazquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X1953 (200 Kb); Oil on canvas, 153 x 118.1 cm (60 1/4 x 46 1/2 in)
Francis BaconStudy for Chimpanzee, March 1957Oil and pastel on canvas152.4 x 117 cm
Paralytic Child Walking on All Fours (from Muybridge), 1961, oil on canvas, 198 x 142 cm.
Retrato de George Dyer en un espejo • Fecha: • 1968 • Tipo: • Óleo sobre lienzo • Medidas: • 198 x 147 cm
http://www.yveskleinarchives.org/works/flash/zones01.pdf http://www.yveskleinarchives.org/works/works12_us.html http://www.yveskleinarchives.org/works/works3_us.html Performance art Conceptual art
The International Klein Blue (IKB) the physical manifestation of cosmic energy that, otherwise invisible, floats freely in the air 'Proposte Monochrome, Epoca Blu' (Proposition Monochrome; Blue Epoch) Gallery Apollinaire, Milan, (January 1957) 11 identical blue canvases, using ultramarine pigment suspended in a synthetic resin 'Rhodopas' Untitled blue monochrome (IKB 82), 1959. Dry pigment in synthetic resin on canvas, mounted on board, 36 1/4 x 28 1/4 x 1 1/4 inches
YVES KLEIN ARCHISPONGE natural sponges, pebbles and dry blue pigment in synthetic resin on panel 78 3/4 x 65 in. 200 x 165 cm
Blue Sponge, 1959 Dry pigment in synthetic resin on sponge with metal rod and stone base, 39 x 12 x 10 inches
Exhibition at the Iris Clert Gallery (April 1958) La spécialisation de la sensibilité à l’état matière première en sensibilité picturale stabilisée, Le Vide (The Specialization of Sensibility in the Raw Material State into Stabilized Pictorial Sensibility, The Void) “Recently my work with color has led me, in spite of myself, to search little by little, with some assistance (from the observer, from the translator), for the realization of matter, and I have decided to end the battle. My paintings are now invisible and I would like to show them in a clear and positive manner, in my next Parisian exhibition at Iris Clert's."
Zone de Sensibilité Picturale Immatérielle (Zone of immaterial pictorial sensibility) Between the creation of the piece in 1959 and his death in 1962, eight Zones were sold, of which at least 3 involved the elaborate ritual.
transfer of immateriality ritual "Klein's receipts verify the existence of an invisible work of art, which prove that a formal sale has taken place. As Klein establishes in his 'Ritual Rules', each buyer has two possibilities; If he pays the amount of gold agreed upon in exchange for a receipt, Klein keeps all of the gold, and the buyer does not really acquire the "authentic immaterial value" of the work. The second possibility is to buy an immaterial zone for gold and then to burn the receipt. Through this act, a perfect, definitive immaterialization is achieved, as well as the absolute inclusion of the buyer in the immaterial.... Klein presents capitalist trading strategies and illuminates his ideas about the indefinable, incalculable value of art.“ Yves Klein, Berggruen Hollein & Pfeiffer, Hatje Kantz 2004 p221 Yves Klein and Dino Buzzati engaged in the ritual transfer of immateriality, January 26, 1962
Le Saut dans le Vide (Leap into the Void) Photomontage by Harry Shunk of a performance by Yves Klein at Rue Gentil-Bernard, Fontenay-aux-Roses, October 1960.
Nouveau Realisme (New Realism) = New Perceptual Approaches To The Real The critic Pierre Restany, founded the Nouveau Realisme group in Klein's apartment, on 27th October 1960. Founding members were Arman, Francois Dufrêne, Raymond Hains, Yves Klein, Martial Raysse, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely, and Jacques Villeglé, with Niki de Saint-Phalle. Christo and Duchamp joining later. Alongside works by Andy Warhol and Willem De Kooning, Yves Klein's painting RE 46 (1960) was among the top-five sellers at Christie's Post-War and Contemporary Art sale in May 2006. His monochromatic blue sponge painting sold for $4,720,000 http://www.sothebys.com/app/live/lot/LotDetail.jsp?lot_id=159497653 Previously, his painting RE I (1958) had sold for $6,716,000 at Christie's New York in November In 2008 MG 9 (1962), a monochromatic gold painting, sold for $21,000,000 at Christie's.