Information Exchangein Botanical Garden Networks Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
Streamlining A&BS • Workable Transactions • Protection • Enforcement
Access and Benefit Sharing • Working with different partners (MoU & MoC) • Taxonomic / applied research • Basic research • Importance of definitions • Commercial: active extracts/compounds, horticultural, knowledge (traditional)
Convention on Biological Diversity Mutually Agreed Terms • Access to Genetic Resources • Permitted use of Genetic Resources • Restrictions on Supply • Benefit-Sharing • Definitions
Convention on Biological Diversity • Article 15 (5) • Access to genetic resources subject to “Prior informed Consent” • Article 15 (2) • Parties must endeavour to facilitate access
Issues since 1990’s • Ownership of genetic resources can be unclear • Stakeholders: who are they? • Benefit Sharing: what type? • Increased complexity: who signs? • Process takes too long for grants: funders withdraw • CBD issues not recognised by many grant giving organisation (as if CBD not required for pure academic research)
Concerns about CBD • Lack of clarity • Different conditions in each country • Bureaucracy • Unrealistic expectations • High transactions costs –who pays? • Lack of understanding (among all concerned)
EFFECTIVE PARTNERSHIPS (MSBP) >100 partner institutions in 50 countries
PRIOR INFORMED CONSENTACCESS & BENEFIT SHARING AGREEMENTS • Ownership • Consent • Activities • Governance • Benefit sharing • Non-commercialisation • Transfer to third parties • Duration
Project context – International CBD Article 9 Each Contracting Party shall ... predominantly for the purpose of complementing in-situ measures: (a) Adopt measures for the ex-situ conservation of components of biological diversity; Global Strategy for Plant Conservation Target 8. 60% of threatened plant species in accessible ex situ collections, preferably in the country of origin, and 10% of them included in recovery and restoration programmes
Project context – Local Objective 2.5 of the NSW Biodiversity Conservation Strategy states:“Action 29: …implement ex-situ conservation measures..”“Action 30: …include ex-situ conservation options in recovery plans for the threatened species, populations or ecological communities where appropriate….” Objective 1.9 of the National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia’s Biodiversity that is: Ex-situ conservation: “To complement in-situ measures, establish and maintain facilities for ex-situ research into and conservation of plants, animals and micro-organisms, particularly those identified by action taken in accordance with Objective 1.1”
Collecting and targets • Each year it is proposed to undertake collections from at least 135 species.. and will include: • species listed as threatened according to state or national legislation; • species belonging to threatened ecosystems; • species endemic to South Australia; • species representative of key ecological communities; • high utility species such as those used in revegetation programs. • By completion of the Project it is proposed to have undertaken conservation collections for 60% of species identified as being nationally threatened according to South Australia’s six regional biodiversity plans.
Procedures: Access to genetic resources outside Kew • Identify in-country collaborators • Identify scope of project • Identify local issues (e.g. primary IK stays with host country) • MOU drafted • Signed by head of institute/government – or suitable authority • Reporting
Procedures: Access to material at Kew • Access via institute (rather than individual) • Material Transfer Agreements • Identify Kew Accession number of material (only non-restricted material send out) • With companies – research undertaken at Kew with material from the “origin country” via the company.
Influence of the Convention of Biological Diversity on natural product research The story behind the commercialisation of DMDP (2,5 dihydroxy-methyl-3,4 dihydroxypyrrolidine)
Costa Rica • Dan Janzen in 1980 sent some seeds not eaten by insects to Kew from Costa Rica • Pure ecological research – insect-plant interactions Result • Identification of DMDP in Lonchocarpus (of commercial interest)
Agreements • 1992 Supply agreement BTG pay INBio for supply of DMDP Costa Rica can use DMDP as a nematocide
Agreements • 1992 Supply agreement BTG pay INBio for supply of DMDP Costa Rica can use DMDP as a nematocide • 1995 Collaborative Agreement Establishment of plantations in Costa Rica
Agreements • 1992 Supply agreement BTG pay INBio for supply of DMDP Costa Rica can use DMDP as a nematocide • 1995 Collaborative Agreement Establishment of plantations in Costa Rica • 1999 Revenue Sharing/ Assignments
Need more DMDP • Synthetic source • Alternative natural sources
Lachenalia bulbifera HYACINTHACEAE Hyacinth Family Hyacinthus orientalis Massonia depressa
EU Funded Project • Iwokrama • CABI Bioscience • West Indies University • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Project Objectives • Set up laboratory to isolate, identify and screen fungi in Guyana • Inventory of fungi • Collection of fungal isolates for screening • Profile metabolites in extracts • Undertake basic activity screens on extracts
Progress • Staff in Guyana recruited and trained • Mycologist, Natural Product Chemist • Laboratory in Guyana equipped and “ready” • Extracts available for testing • Anti-microbial “leads” identified BUT • No legislation in place in Guyana to cover commercialisation and associated benefit-sharing (resources going into health – transport etc)
Procedures For projects MOC/MOU For material Material supply Agreements Accession databases For people Travel Forms: have you agreements in place? Grants: have you PIC?
Streamlining A&BS • Workable Transactions • Protection yes – but (?) • Enforcement within Kew but outside ?