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Criminology

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  1. Criminology Classical Theory Sociological Theories Labeling Theory

  2. Classical Criminology • 18th century writings • Bentham, Beccaria: Utilitarian Philosophers • The basic premise in the classical criminology => Actions are taken and decisions are made by persons in the rational exercise of free will. All individuals choose to obey or violate the law by a rational calculation of the risk of pain versus potential pleasure derived from an act.

  3. Deterrence Theory • Deterrence: Certainty, Severity, and Celebrity of Punishment • Research result: severity does not deter. • Retributive punishments are introduced based on this theory.

  4. Modern deterrence theory • Deterrence theory and Rational Choice theory • The theory continues to attract many people because of its direct applicability to policy on law enforcement, courts and imprisonments

  5. Policies of Deterrence Theory • Policy makers => enhance severity • “Get – Tough” CJ policies - Restoration of capital punishment • Abolishment of parole • Indeterminate sentencing • Longer prison sentences for drug and violent offenders • “three-strikes-and-you’re-out” life sentences for habitual offenders • Direct filing of juvenile offenders to criminal courts

  6. Effects of these policies • The enormous increase in the number of prisons and unprecedented growth in the number of Americans in prison and under CJ supervision

  7. Result • Beginning in the 1990s => The official crime rate has been decreased. • The lowest levels since the 1960s. • Is this the result of these policies?

  8. Biological Criminology • Lombroso – Criminals are decided by biological factors. There are criminal men who are distinguished by their appearance • Psychopath – Hormone Castration

  9. Sociological Theories (1) • Social Learning Theory – Criminals are learned. Environment and parenting are important. • Anomie Theory -> Poverty is the reason of crimes. • Social Disorganization Theory -> Disorganized society caused by poverty is the cause of crimes.

  10. Sociological Theories (2) • These theories suggest that low-income, poor neighborhoods, poor parenting are causes of crimes. Rather than the free will choice of individuals • According to these theories, criminals are not responsible for their crimes. Society is responsible for criminals • America – Social Welfare Service

  11. Sociological Theories (3) • Based on these theories, correctional approaches are introduced. • Before => Prisons were considered as a place to punish criminals. • After => Correctional concept is introduced. • From Penitentiary (형무소) to Correctional Facilities (교도소) • Research results do not support correction idea.

  12. Social Learning Theory • Burgess (1928) – Concentric Zone Model • Sutherland (1947) – Differential Association Theory • Burgess & Akers (1966)

  13. Burgess – Concentric Zone Model • http://www.google.co.kr/imgres?q=burgess+concentric&um=1&hl=ko&newwindow=1&sa=X&biw=1899&bih=997&tbs=isch:1&tbnid=dDKRgWVN62lqlM:&imgrefurl=http://blog.naver.com/PostView.nhn%253FblogId%253Dxooworo%2526logNo%253D110014687494&imgurl=http://postfiles6.naver.net/data25/2007/2/22/197/czt300-xooworo-xooworo.jpg%253Ftype%253Dw3&ei=5hWATbvBFYu9cd788OAG&zoom=1&w=300&h=300

  14. Sutherland – Differential Association Theory • Criminal behavior is learned. • Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication. • A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law. • Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity.

  15. Akers’ social learning theory • developed the theory • Learning mechanisms based on modern behavioral theory ex] differential reinforcement => behavior is shaped by rewards and punishment. immitation

  16. Policy of social learning theory • Oregon Social Learning Center • Proposition : The child’s behavior and interaction with others are “learned in the family, and under more extreme conditions carries over to a child’s interactions with others outside the family, including peers and teachers • OSLC Adolescent Transition Program (ATP) • OSLC Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) • OSLC Linking the Interests of Families and Teachers (LIFT)

  17. OSLC • http://www.oslc.org/home.html

  18. OSLC MTFC • Chronic, high frequency, and serious delinquencies • Foster care families – youth – parents – case managers • Competent foster parents are recruited and trained. • Youths meet behavioral therapists. • Parents also receive training in parental skills • Recidivism rate is lower in both official and self-reported delinquency.

  19. Labeling Theory • If criminals are labeled as “criminals”, they commit more crimes. Because they are labeled, it is not easy for them to find jobs, and people avoid them. => Difficult for them to live in society. • This theory is introduced to criminal policies => To minimize the labeling effect, criminal policies permit probations to non-serious criminals and no criminal record to minors.

  20. Summary • Criminology theories that affect criminal policies • Classical theory => the basis of retributive punishment • Sociological Criminology => the basis of “correctional” facilities • Criminal policies are trying to minimize labeling effect.

  21. Stanford Prison Experiment • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rmwSC5fS40w&feature=player_embedded • http://www.experiment-resources.com/stanford-prison-experiment.html

  22. 사법고시 - 형사정책 1. 형사정책의 학문적 성격에 관한 기술 중 옳지 않은 것은?  ① 형사정책은 범죄의 예방과 퇴치라는 가치를 지향하는 정책학의 성격을 띠고 있다.  ② 형사정책은 인접학문의 성과를 이용하는 학제적 또는 간학문적 성격을 갖는다.  ③ 형사정책은 형법학과 달리 규범학적 성격이 내포되지 않은 학문이다.  ④ 형사정책학과 형법학은 상호의존성을 가진다.

  23. 9. 고전주의 범죄이론에 관한 설명 중 옳지 않은 것은?  ① 효과적인 범죄예방대책은 형벌을 부과하여 사람들로 하여금 범죄를 선택하지 못하게 하는 것이다.  ② 범죄를 예방하기 위해서는 행위자의 특성을 고려한 형벌을 부과하여야 한다.  ③ 미국 범죄사회학이론 중 억제이론(deterrence theory)의 이론적 기초가 되었다.  ④ 베카리아(C. Beccaria)는 범죄를 처벌하는 것보다 범죄를 예방하는 것이 더욱 중요하다고 하였다.  ⑤ 고전주의 이론가들이 관심을 둔 사항은 형벌제도의 개혁이었다.

  24. 15. 다음은 사회학적 범죄이론 가운데 학습이론에 관한 설명들이다. 옳지 않은 내용들만으로 묶인 것은? ㄱ. 준법행위와 마찬가지로 범죄행위도 주위로부터 학습된다는 이론이다. ㄴ. 따르드(J. G. Tarde)는 모방의 법칙을 주장하면서, 그 내용 중 하나로 모방은 가까운 사람들 사이에 강하게 일어난다는 삽입의 법칙을 주장하였다. ㄷ. 서덜랜드(E. H. Sutherland)는 차별적 접촉이론(differential association theory)을 주장하면서, 그 내용 중 하나로 어떤 사람이 범죄자가 되는 것은 법률위반을 긍정적으로 생각하는 정도가 부정적으로 생각하는 정도보다 크기 때문이라고 하였다. ㄹ. 글래저(D. Glaser)의 차별적 동일시이론(differential identification theory)은 공간적으로 멀리 떨어져 있는 준거집단도 학습의 대상으로 고려했다는 점에서 차별적 접촉이론과 차이가 있다. ㅁ. 버제스(R.Burgess)와 에이커스(R.Akers)의 사회적 학습이론(social learning theory)은 사회적 상호작용만을 중시하고 개인의 욕구와 같은 비사회적 사정들을 배제시킨 이론이라는 점에 특징이 있다.  ① ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄷ  ② ㄱ, ㄴ, ㄹ  ③ ㄴ, ㄷ  ④ ㄴ, ㅁ  ⑤ ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅁ