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  1. Chapter 2 How Sociologists Do Research 1-23 24-48

  2. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking Ten Types of Non-Scientific Thinking Knowledge based on: • TRADITION

  3. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking Ten Types of Non-Scientific Thinking Knowledge based on: • TRADITION • AUTHORITY

  4. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking Ten Types of Non-Scientific Thinking Knowledge based on: • TRADITION • AUTHORITY • CASUAL OBSERVATION

  5. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking Ten Types of Non-Scientific Thinking Knowledge based on: • TRADITION • AUTHORITY • CASUAL OBSERVATION • OVERGENERALIZATION

  6. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking Ten Types of Non-Scientific Thinking Knowledge based on: • TRADITION • AUTHORITY • CASUAL OBSERVATION • OVERGENERALIZATION • SELECTIVE OBSERVATION

  7. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking Ten Types of Non-Scientific Thinking Knowledge based on: • TRADITION • AUTHORITY • CASUAL OBSERVATION • OVERGENERALIZATION • SELECTIVE OBSERVATION • QUALIFICATION

  8. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking Ten Types of Non-Scientific Thinking Knowledge based on: • TRADITION • AUTHORITY • CASUAL OBSERVATION • OVERGENERALIZATION • SELECTIVE OBSERVATION • QUALIFICATION • ILLOGICAL REASONING

  9. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking Ten Types of Non-Scientific Thinking Knowledge based on: • TRADITION • AUTHORITY • CASUAL OBSERVATION • OVERGENERALIZATION • SELECTIVE OBSERVATION • QUALIFICATION • ILLOGICAL REASONING • EGO DEFENSE

  10. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking Ten Types of Non-Scientific Thinking Knowledge based on: • TRADITION • AUTHORITY • CASUAL OBSERVATION • OVERGENERALIZATION • SELECTIVE OBSERVATION • QUALIFICATION • ILLOGICAL REASONING • EGO DEFENSE • PREMATURE CLOSURE OF INQUIRY

  11. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking Ten Types of Non-Scientific Thinking Knowledge based on: • TRADITION • AUTHORITY • CASUAL OBSERVATION • OVERGENERALIZATION • SELECTIVE OBSERVATION • QUALIFICATION • ILLOGICAL REASONING • EGO DEFENSE • PREMATURE CLOSURE OF INQUIRY • MYSTIFICATION

  12. Non-Scientific v. Scientific Thinking • Scientific Thinking – Sociological Research seeks to overcome the kind of unscientific thinking described in the previous list. • Sociologists use a cyclical process that involves six steps to find answers to their questions. • This process is called the research cycle.

  13. The Research Cycle 1. Formulate question 2. Review existing literature 6. Report Results 3. Select Method 5. Analyze Data 4. Collect Data

  14. The Research Cycle 1. Formulate a research question -Must be stated so it can be answered by systematically collecting and analyzing sociological data

  15. The Research Cycle Which question can be answered by systematically collecting and analyzing sociological data? • Does God exist? • Why are some people more religious than others?

  16. The Research Cycle Which question can be answered by systematically collecting and analyzing sociological data? • What is the best political system? • Which political systems create more opportunities for higher education?

  17. The Research Cycle 2. Review existing literature • Stimulate imagination • Refine initial question • Prevent duplication

  18. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Field Research • Experiments • Surveys • Existing Documents & Statistics

  19. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Field Research - Research based on the observation of people in their natural settings • 3 Main Types of Field Research • Detached observation • Ethnographic research • Participant observation

  20. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Field Research - Research based on the observation of people in their natural settings • 3 Main Types of Field Research • Detached observation- classifying and counting the behavior of interest according to a predetermined scheme • Ethnographic research • Participant observation

  21. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Field Research - Research based on the observation of people in their natural settings • 3 Main Types of Field Research • Detached observation • Ethnographic research – researcher spends months or even years living with people to learn their language, values, and mannerisms – their entire culture – and develop an intimate understanding of their behavior • Participant observation

  22. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Field Research - Research based on the observation of people in their natural settings • 3 Main Types of Field Research • Detached observation • Ethnographic research • Participant observation – involves carefully observing people’s face-to-face interactions and actually participating in their lives over a long period, thus achieving a deep and sympathetic understanding of what motivates them to act in the way they do.

  23. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Field Research - Research based on the observation of people in their natural settings • Exploratory Research is an attempt to describe, understand, and develop theory about a social phenomenon in the absence of much previous research on the subject

  24. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Experiments • A carefully controlled artificial situation that allows researchers to isolate hypothesized causes and measure their effects precisely

  25. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Experiments • Lab experiments – a controlled setting chosen by the researcher (laboratory) • Field & Natural Experiments – controlled by researchers, but conducted in the “field” or the real world

  26. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Surveys • Ask people questions about their knowledge, attitudes, or behavior

  27. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Surveys • Face-to-Face Interview • Telephone Interview • Paper-and-Pencil Format

  28. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Existing Documents & Statistics • Studying documents and statistics not created by the researcher

  29. The Research Cycle 3. Select research method • Existing Documents & Statistics • Diaries • Newspapers • Published historical works • Census data • Police crime reports • Records of key life events (marriage, births, deaths)

  30. The Research Cycle 4. Collecting data • Observing subjects • Interviewing subjects • Reading documents produced by or about subjects

  31. The Research Cycle 5. Analyzing data • Learn things nobody ever knew about • Confirm expectations or Confound expectations

  32. The Research Cycle 6. Publicize results • Research is not much use to the sociological community, the subjects of the research, or the wider society if it is not published 2. Allows others to scrutinize and criticize research 3. Sociologists can formulate new and more sophisticated questions for next round of research

  33. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS Respect the rights of subjects: • Right to safety (do no harm) • Right to privacy of subjects • Right to confidentiality • Right to informed consent

  34. Methodology of Research • Measurement • Reliability • Validity • Generalizability • Causality

  35. Methodology of Research • Measurement • Defining the variables to be studied in such a way that they can be measured • Examples: Race, class, gender

  36. Methodology of Research • Reliability • The degree to which a measurement procedure yields consistent results

  37. Methodology of Research • Validity • The degree to which a measure actually measures what it is intended to measure • i.e. reliable shoe size not a valid measure of income

  38. Methodology of Research • Generalizability • Exists when research findings apply beyond the specific case examined

  39. Methodology of Research • Causality • The analysis of causes and their effects

  40. Methodology of Research • Randomization • assigning individuals to groups by chance processes

  41. Methodology of Research • Control group • The group that is NOT exposed to the independent variable

  42. Methodology of Research • Experimental group • The group that IS exposed to the independent variable

  43. Methodology of Research • Independent variable • The presumed cause in a cause-and-effect relationship • The variable that is controlled for in an experiment

  44. Methodology of Research • Dependent variable • The presumed effect in a cause-and-effect relationship • The variable that is observed in an experiment

  45. Methodology of Research • Sample • The part of the population of research interest that is selected of analysis

  46. Methodology of Research • Population • The entire group about which a researcher wishes to generalize

  47. Methodology of Research • Statistical Significance • exists when a finding is unlikely to occur by chance

  48. Methodology of Research • Association • exists between two variables if the value of one variable changes with the value of the other.