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Arsitektur dan Protokol. Adiyuda Prayitna. Protokol. Protokol?? Suatu cara yang sudah ditetapkan secara baku. Misal : Upacara Bendera Pengamanan terhadap diri presiden dll. Mengapa perlu Protokol ??. Perlunya standarisasi dalam pengiriman dan penerimaan data

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arsitektur dan protokol

ArsitekturdanProtokol

AdiyudaPrayitna

protokol
Protokol
  • Protokol??

Suatu cara yang sudah ditetapkan secara baku.

Misal :

  • Upacara Bendera
  • Pengamanan terhadap diri presiden
  • dll
mengapa perlu protokol
MengapaperluProtokol??
  • Perlunyastandarisasidalampengirimandanpenerimaan data
  • Antarapengirimdanpenerimaharussiapmenjalankanpertukan data
  • Pengirimmengetahuikemanaharusmengirim.
  • Penerima data mengetahuibahwamasukditujukanuntuknya
kegunaan protokol
Kegunaanprotokol
  • Encapsulation
  • Segmentation and reassembly
  • Connection control
  • Ordered delivery
  • Flow control
  • Error control
  • Addressing
  • Multiplexing
  • Transmission services
encapsulation
Encapsulation
  • Addition of control information to data
    • Address information
    • Error-detecting code
    • Protocol control
segmentation fragmentation
Segmentation (Fragmentation)
  • Data dibagikedalamblok-blokterpisahdalamukurantertentu
  • Application layer messages may be large
  • Network packets may be smaller
  • Splitting larger blocks into smaller ones is segmentation (or fragmentation in TCP/IP)
    • ATM blocks (cells) are 53 octets long
    • Ethernet blocks (frames) are up to 1526 octets long
  • Checkpoints and restart/recovery
why fragment
Why Fragment?
  • Keuntungan
    • Pengendalian error semakinefisien
    • Akseskejaringansemakinwajar.
    • Delay yang semakinpendek
    • Buffer semakinkecil
  • Kerugian
    • Overheads
    • Meningkatnyainterupsidisisipenerima
    • Waktupemrosesansemakin lama
connection control
Connection Control
  • Connection Establishment
  • Data transfer
  • Connection termination
  • May be connection interruption and recovery
  • Sequence numbers used for
    • Ordered delivery
    • Flow control
    • Error control
ordered delivery
Ordered Delivery
  • PDUs Mungkinakandikirimkanmelaluijaringan yang berbeda
  • PDUs Mungkinakansampaikekomputertujuandenganurutanacak
  • PDUs mendapatkannomorurutpengiriman.
protokol data unit pdu
Protokol Data Unit (PDU)
  • Penambahan network header
    • Alamat jaringan untuk komputer tujuan
    • Fasilitas permintaan
flow control
Flow Control
  • Berakhirdenganditerimanyasebuahentitas/data
  • Limit amount or rate of data
  • Stop and wait
  • Credit systems
    • Sliding window
  • Needed at application as well as network layers
error control
Error Control
  • Guard against loss or damage
  • Error detection
    • Sender inserts error detecting bits
    • Receiver checks these bits
    • If OK, acknowledge
    • If error, discard packet
  • Retransmission
    • If no acknowledge in given time, re-transmit
  • Performed at various levels
addressing
Addressing
  • Addressing level
  • Addressing scope
  • Connection identifiers
  • Addressing mode
addressing level
Addressing level
  • Level in architecture at which entity is named
  • Unique address for each end system (computer) and router
  • Network level address
    • IP or internet address (TCP/IP)
    • Network service access point or NSAP (OSI)
  • Process within the system
    • Port number (TCP/IP)
    • Service access point or SAP (OSI)
addressing scope
Addressing Scope
  • Global nonambiguity
    • Global address identifies unique system
    • There is only one system with address X
  • Global applicability
    • It is possible at any system (any address) to identify any other system (address) by the global address of the other system
    • Address X identifies that system from anywhere on the network
  • e.g. MAC address on IEEE 802 networks
connection identifiers
Connection Identifiers
  • Connection oriented data transfer (virtual circuits)
  • Allocate a connection name during the transfer phase
    • Reduced overhead as connection identifiers are shorter than global addresses
    • Routing may be fixed and identified by connection name
    • Entities may want multiple connections - multiplexing
    • State information
addressing mode
Addressing Mode
  • Usually an address refers to a single system
    • Unicast address
    • Sent to one machine or person
  • May address all entities within a domain
    • Broadcast
    • Sent to all machines or users
  • May address a subset of the entities in a domain
    • Multicast
    • Sent to some machines or a group of users
multiplexing
Multiplexing
  • Supporting multiple connections on one machine
  • Mapping of multiple connections at one level to a single connection at another
    • Carrying a number of connections on one fiber optic cable
    • Aggregating or bonding ISDN lines to gain bandwidth
transmission services
Transmission Services
  • Priority
    • e.g. control messages
  • Quality of service
    • Minimum acceptable throughput
    • Maximum acceptable delay
  • Security
    • Access restrictions
standarisasi protocol architectures
Standarisasi Protocol Architectures
  • Yang diperlukan untuk alat untuk komunikasi
  • Penjual mempunyai lebih banyak produk untuk dipasarkan
  • Pelanggan dapat meminta dg tegas peralatan yg berdasarkan standarisasi
  • Two standards:
    • OSI Reference model
      • Never lived up to early promises
    • TCP/IP protocol suite
      • Most widely used
  • Also: IBM Systems Network Architecture (SNA)
slide24
OSI
  • Open Systems Interconnection
  • Dikembangkan oleh the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • Seven layers
  • Suatu sistem teoritisyang dikirimkan sudah terlambat
  • TCP/IP is the de facto standard
osi the model
OSI - The Model
  • A layer model
  • Tiap-tiap layer melakukanfungsi yang diperlukan untuk komunikasi
  • Tiap-tiap layer mempercayakanpada layer berikutnya yg lebih rendahuntuk melaksanakan fungsi yg lebih primitif
  • Tiap-tiap layer menyediakan jasa untuk layer berikutnya yang lebih tinggi
  • Perubahan di satu layertidak memerlukan perubahan di layer yg lain
elements of standardization
Elements of Standardization
  • Spesifikasi protokol
    • Operasi antara lapisan yg sama pada dua sistem
    • Mungkin melibatkan sistem operasi yg berbeda
    • Spesifikasi protokol harus tepat
      • Format of data units
      • Semantics of all fields
      • allowable sequence of PCUs
  • Service definition
    • Functional description of what is provided
  • Addressing
    • Referenced by SAPs
service primitives and parameters
Service Primitives and Parameters
  • Jasa antara layer yg bersebelahandinyatakan dalam kaitan dengan primitif dan parameter
  • Primitives menetapkan fungsi untuk dilakukan
  • Parameters melewatkan data dan mengendalikan info
osi layers 1
OSI Layers (1)
  • Physical
    • Physical menghubungkan antar alat
      • Mechanical
      • Electrical
      • Functional
      • Procedural
  • Data Link
    • Mengaktifkan, memelihara dan mematikanlink
    • Error detection and control
    • Higher layers may assume error free transmission
osi layers 2
OSI Layers (2)
  • Network
    • Transport dari informasi
    • Layer tertinggi tidak memerlukan untuk mengetahuitentang teknologi layer di bawahnya
    • Tidak diperlukan pada direct links
  • Transport
    • Pertukaran data antar akhir sistem
    • Bebas error
    • In sequence
    • Tidak ada losses
    • No duplicates
    • Quality of service
osi layers 3
OSI Layers (3)
  • Session
    • Mengendalikan dialog antar aplikasi
    • Dialogue discipline
    • Pengelompokan
    • Recovery
  • Presentation
    • Data formats and coding
    • Kompressi data
    • Encryption
  • Application
    • Aplikasi digunakan untuk mengakses lingkungan OSI
tcp ip protocol architecture
TCP/IP Protocol Architecture
  • Dikembangkan oleh the US Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) for its packet switched network (ARPANET)
  • Digunakan oleh internet global
  • Tidak ada macam modeltetapi aktif satu.
    • Application layer
    • Host to host or transport layer
    • Internet layer
    • Network access layer
    • Physical layer
physical layer
Physical Layer
  • Physical menghubungkan antaraalat transmisi data (e.g. computer) dan medium transmisiatau jaringan
  • Karakteristik dari medium transmisi
  • Signal levels
  • Data rates
  • etc.
network access layer
Network Access Layer
  • Pertukaran dataantara sistem akhirdan jaringan
  • Tujuan ketetapan alamat
  • Permohonan jasa seperti prioritas
internet layer ip
Internet Layer (IP)
  • Sistem mungkindipasangke jaringan yang berbeda
  • Fungsi routing menyebrang ke berbagai jaringan
  • Implementasi di akhir sistem dan routers
transport layer tcp
Transport Layer (TCP)
  • Dipercaya dalam pengiriman data
  • Pemesanan pengiriman
application layer
Application Layer
  • Support untuk aplikasi pengguna
  • e.g. http, SMPT
slide45
TCP
  • Transport layer biasanyaadalah Transmission Control Protocol
    • Koneksi dapat dipercaya
  • koneksi
    • Temporary logical association antar kesatuan di dalam sistem yg berbeda
  • TCP PDU
    • Disebut dengan TCP segment
    • Termasuk port sumber dan tujuan (c.f. SAP)
      • Identifikasi pelanggan masing - masing (applications)
      • Koneksi mengacu padapair dari ports
  • TCP tracks segments anatra kesatuan pada tiap – tiap koneksi
slide46
UDP
  • Alternative dari TCP yaitu User Datagram Protocol
  • Tidak dijamin dalam pengirimannya
  • Tidak ada pemeliharaan dalam urutan
  • Tidak ada perlindungan melawan terhadap duplikasi
  • Minimum overhead
  • Adds port addressing to IP
addressing level1
Addressing level
  • Level dalam architecture dimana kesatuan dinamai
  • Pengalamatan unikuntuk tiap akhir sistem (computer) and router
  • Network level address
    • IP or internet address (TCP/IP)
    • Network service access point or NSAP (OSI)
  • Proses didalam sistem
    • Port number (TCP/IP)
    • Service access point or SAP (OSI)
trace dari operasi sederhana
Trace dari operasi sederhana
  • Process dihubungkan dengan port 1 di host A mengirim pesan kepada port 2 di host B
  • Process yang adamenjatuhkan pesanke TCP untuk dikirim ke port 2
  • TCP menjatuhkan ke IP untuk dikirim ke host B
  • IP menjatuhkanke network layer (e.g. Ethernet) untuk dikirim ke router J
  • Menghasilkan satu set encapsulated PDUs
example header information
Example Header Information
  • Port tujuan
  • Urutan nomor
  • Checksum