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Micheal Stewart History and Principles of Vocational Education VOED 6513 November 28, 2005 Fall 2005 Dr. David Agnew PowerPoint Presentation
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Micheal Stewart History and Principles of Vocational Education VOED 6513 November 28, 2005 Fall 2005 Dr. David Agnew. Calvin Milton Woodward. Dr. Calvin M. Woodward “The Father of Manual Training”. Calvin M. Woodward.

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Micheal StewartHistory and Principles of Vocational EducationVOED 6513November 28, 2005Fall 2005Dr. David Agnew

Calvin Milton Woodward

calvin m woodward
Calvin M. Woodward
  • Woodward was educated at Harvard University where he earned a Bachelor's Degree in Engineering in 1860.
  • He later went to Washington University at St, Louis where he was conferred a Doctor of Philosophy In Engineering in 1883.
where did woodward gain interest in manual training
Where did Woodward gain interest in Manual Training?
  • Woodward attended the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876. While he was there he noticed a display from the Imperial Technical School in Moscow, Russia.
woodward s interest in manual training
Woodward’s Interest in Manual Training
  • Woodward was impressed with the display and the machine tools manufactured by the students. He was more impressed by the students knowledge of the tools and machinery used to create what they manufactured.
woodward s move towards manual training
Woodward’s move towards manual Training

Woodward, while at Washington University, taught applied mathematics. This is where he put his theory of manual training to the test. Woodward wanted to make this class more interesting, more objective, and easily understood.

woodward and manual training
Woodward and Manual Training
  • Woodward concluded the best way for students to master any subject they first must be able to organize and place things in sequence before actual construction could begin.
woodward and manual training1
Woodward and Manual Training
  • What are some of the purposes of Manual Training?
  • It broadens students expression by allowing the movement of hands controlled by the mind.
  • It allows student to become knowledgeable with the tools needed in their working environment.
what are some of the purposes of manual training
What are some of the purposes of Manual Training?
  • It teaches the distinction of labor, materials, and equipment.
  • It requires planning and attention to detail.
  • It enable students to realize and justify the results the results of their training.
criticism of manual training
Criticism of Manual Training
  • William T. Harris was a conventional educator during Woodward’s time. He was one of the primary critics of Manual Training. His claim was that Manual Training had no place in the traditional classroom.
criticism of manual training1
Criticism of Manual Training
  • Harris argued that Manual Training restrained a students from reaching his/her potential. Manual Training according to Harris limited a students awareness of the natural world; to teach a child to read and write was to educate the whole child.
woodward s rebuttal
Woodward’s Rebuttal
  • Woodward rebutted his critics by saying: ”My conclusion, based upon the observation of the influence of manual education for at least eight years, is that not only does our workshop not detract from the interest boys take in books, but it stimulates and increases it either directly or indirectly”
woodward s rebuttal1
Woodward’s Rebuttal
  • Woodward continues his argument that manual training can provide opportunities in learning that the traditional classroom does not provide when he said,
“Note, for instance, the mental arithmetic involved in the execution of a pattern from a working drawing. No one can learn from a book the true force of technical terms or definitions nor the properties of materials. The obscurities of the textbooks… vanish before the steady gaze a boy whose hands and eyes have assisted in the building of mental images.”
woodward s insight
Woodward’s Insight
  • Woodward was revolutionary in his ideas concerning technology and technology education. In his time a Washington University he continued to be a proponent of learning and using the technology of the day.
woodward s insight1
Woodward’s Insight
  • Woodward said when addressing a group of graduates from his manual training school said: ”A graduate is able to use both his head and his head.”
woodward s insight2
Woodward’s Insight
  • If Calvin Woodward were alive today he would be an innovator.
  • Woodward said that technology could be used to “stimulate invention”
calvin woodward s memorial
Calvin Woodward’s Memorial
  • Calvin Woodward spent forty-five years as an educator.
  • His dedication to education was the driving force for him to advocate manual training and the benefits it can have for students.
  • Woodward resigned fro Washington University in 1910.
calvin woodward s memorial1
Calvin Woodward’s Memorial
  • On January 12, 1914 Calvin Woodward died at his home at the age of 72.
  • The Manual Training School catalog of 1914-1915 has this fitting memorial.
calvin woodward s memorial2
Calvin Woodward’s Memorial
  • His clear vision saw the pressing needs of young men; his inspiring personality drew together the group of friends who made this school a success; his broad sympathies and wise counsel gave encouragement and intelligent direction to thousands of young men who came within the sphere of his influence, and bound them together for life.
  • Beranek, Michael. (Jan. 2003). Technology Education Briefs. Technology Litreacy
  • Kirkland, J., Foster, P., Bartow, S. (Fall 1994). Historical Learder in Technology Education Philosophy. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education.
  • vol. 32. no. 1. Retrieved November 18, 2005 from.
  • Lewis, T. (Fall 2004). A Turn to Engineering: The Continuing Struggle of Technology Education for Legitimization as a School Subject. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education vol. 16. no. 1 Retrieved November 18, 2005 From.
  • Snyder, M. (Summer 2000). Broadening the Interdisciplinary Approach of Technology: Connection Between Communications, Language, and the Literary Arts. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education. vol. 34. no. 4 Retrieved November 18, 2005 From.
  • Sutera, S. Looking Back in Time Our First 50 Years. Washington University School of Engineering and Applied Science. Retrieved November 18, 2005 from.