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Leadership, Self, & Identity. The Self-Concept. Who am I? I am…. Self-Schemas. Athletic. Student. Friendly. Dutch. What is a group?.

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The self concept
The Self-Concept

Who am I? I am…

Self schemas





What is a group
What is a group?

  • To put it simply they are units composed of two or more persons who come into contact for a purpose and who consider the contact meaningful. Theodore M. Mills(1967: 2)

  • A group is defined as two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships. (Donelson R. Forsyth, 2006)

  • A group exists when two or more people define themselves as members of it and when its existence is recognized by at least one other. Rupert Brown (1988: 2-3)

The self concept1
The Self-Concept

  • Self as knowledge structure

    • self-conception source of motivation

    • Self as an anchor to perceive, evaluate, decide

  • Leading by speaking to follower self-concept

    • follower self-concept as mediator

    • follower self-concept as moderator

Self concept self evaluation
Self-Concept: Self-Evaluation

  • Self-Esteem / Collective Esteem

  • Self-Efficacy / Collective Efficacy

  • Ambition and motivation

Self concept 2
Self-Concept (2)

  • Self-consistency (goals)

  • Self-continuity (change)

  • Possible selves

    • ideal self

    • ought self

1000 Americans asked whether they thought various celebrities were likely to go to heaven

  • 66 % for Oprah Winfrey

  • 60 % Princess Diana

  • 65 % Michael Jordan

  • 62 % Bill Clinton

  • 79 % Mother Teresa

    Top vote??

  • 87 % themselves

EXCUSES – Car accidents celebrities were likely to go to heaven

  • “The pedestrian had no idea which direction to go, so I ran over him.”

  • “The guy was all over the road. I had to swerve a number of times before I hit him.”

  • “To avoid hitting the bumper of the car in front, I hit the pedestrian.”

  • “The telephone pole was approaching fast. I was attempting to swerve out of its path when it hit my front end.”

Self concept 3
Self-Concept celebrities were likely to go to heaven(3)

  • Self-enhancement / self-esteem


  • Uncertainty reduction

  • Need for uniqueness

  • Need to belong

Zimbardo video
Zimbardo video celebrities were likely to go to heaven

Self concept self construal
Self-Concept: Self-Construal celebrities were likely to go to heaven

  • Individual self

  • Relational self (personal identification)

  • Collective self (social identification)

    • collective self-interest

    • transformation of motives

  • Aspects of the self can be defined at different levels of inclusiveness

Self concept measures

I celebrities were likely to go to heaven

My organization

Self-Concept: Measures

Self concept measures1
Self-Concept: Measures celebrities were likely to go to heaven

  • Mael and Ashforth Scale of Organizational Identification

  • When someone criticises [Organization X], it feels like a personal insult.

  • I am very interested in what others think about [Organization X].

  • When I talk about [Organization X], I usually say ‘we’ rather than ‘they’.

  • [Organization X]’s successes are my successes.

  • When someone praises [Organization X], it feels like a personal compliment.

  • If a story in the media criticized [Organization X], I would feel embarrassed.

Self concept theory of charisma shamir house arthur 1993
Self-Concept Theory of Charisma celebrities were likely to go to heaven(Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993)

Organizational conditions








Further effects

Follower attributes

Social identity model of leadership
Social Identity Model of Leadership completely assured that you would not be detected or held responsible for your actions, what would you do?

  • Based on the Social Identity Approach (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Turner et al., 1987)

Interpersonal (personal identity)

Intergroup (social identity)

  • Group memberships contribute to our self-definition

  • Identification  Attitudes, emotions and behavior is governed by group norms

Social identity model of leadership1
Social Identity Model of Leadership completely assured that you would not be detected or held responsible for your actions, what would you do?

  • Leader = Group member  perception and evaluations based on the level of the group

    • Group Prototypicality

      • fuzzy set of characteristics, define the group

      • embodiment of group identity

      • Defined on a group level and not on context level

    • Group-oriented behaviors

  • Group membership  leadership perceptions based on prototypicality-perceptions and trust in group-orientedness

Research evidence
Research evidence social pedagogy?

  • Prototypical member is more likely to emerge as a leader (Fielding & Hogg, 1997)

  • Prototypical leader has more influence on followers and is perceived as more effective (Hains et al., 1997; Hogg et al., 1998; Platow & van Knippenberg, 2001)

  • Group-oriented leader receive more endorsement (Haslam & Platow 2001; Halsma et al., 2001)

  • Prototypical leader receive more trust (Giessner & van Knippenberg, 2008; Giessner et al., 2009)

  • Evaluation of prototypical leaders is less contingent on their behaviours

Giessner van knippenberg sleebos 2009
Giessner, van Knippenberg & Sleebos (2009) social pedagogy?

  • Aim of Study: Interaction of Ingroup Prototypicality and Leader Performance on leader endorsement

  • Design: 2 (leader group prototypicality) X 2 (leader performance) between-subjects

  • Dependent variable: leader endorsement

  • Context: Green Party Supporters

Giessner, van Knippenberg & Sleebos (2009) social pedagogy?


  • A prototypical leader might be supported irrespective of his performance, because this leader receives more trust – he/she might have the licence to fail

  • A non-prototypical leader might only be supported if he/she experiences success on behalf of the group, because this leader has to earn group credentials

Giessner van knippenberg sleebos 20091
Giessner, van Knippenberg & Sleebos (2009) social pedagogy?


Study 1 social pedagogy?Manipulation

  • Prototypicality:

  • Based on the manifesto of the Green Party

  • Prototypical:

    • STUDY: MA in politics; WORK: peace movement and for Amnesty International; INTEREST: exit form the use of nuclear power industry, the extension of the public passenger traffic, and for the stop of the further extension of waste combustion

  • Non- Prototypical:

    • STUDY: MSc in engineering; WORK: two sport societies; INTERST: tax reduction for the employees and the middle class, business relations to the states of the former Eastern block (i.e. Bulgaria, Poland), and salary in the case of illness

  • Performance:

  • Negotiation about the way of construction of a new factory

  • ecological construction vs. short highway connection

Results social pedagogy?

Leader Endorsement

Self construal as moderator
Self-Construal as Moderator social pedagogy?

  • Group prototypicality and group-oriented behavior

  • Social exchange (LMX)

  • Implicit leadership theories

  • (Charismatic and transformational leadership)

Social identity and leadership

Personal identity social pedagogy?

Perceptions on interpersonal level

Perceptions on intergroup level

  • Personal relations (LMX theory)

  • Personal characterisitcs

  • Leader schemas (Lord & Maher, 1991)

  • Group norms are important

  • Group prototypicality of leader

  • Group oriented behaviors

Leadership effectiveness

Social Identity and Leadership

Social identity

Entrepreneurs of identity
Entrepreneurs of Identity social pedagogy?

  • Convey prototypicality

  • Convey group-orientedness

  • Vision/mission as identity-congruent

Josef ackermann ceo deutsche bank ag
Josef Ackermann – CEO Deutsche Bank AG social pedagogy?

  • February 2005

  • Deutsche Bank profits: 2.5

  • Billion = 87 % increase

  • cut of 6400 jobs

  • March 2005

  • Ackermann’s salary

  • increased to 12 Million Euro

  • (an increase of 1.8 %)

Entrepreneurs of identity 2
Entrepreneurs of Identity social pedagogy?(2)

  • The advantage of entrepreneurs as leaders

    • Gates = Microsoft

    • Jobs = Apple

  • Inside vs outside leaders

Video of Obama social pedagogy?

How does Obama manage identities?