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UNIT 1.1 Introduction to Computer System. UNIT 1.1 Introduction to Computer System. Number System Computer Concepts Operating System – DOS Operating System – WINDOWS. Computer Concepts. COMPUTER Is an electronic device that can perform prescribed operation given to it. Computer System

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unit 1 1 introduction to computer system1
UNIT 1.1 Introduction to Computer System
  • Number System
  • Computer Concepts
  • Operating System – DOS
  • Operating System – WINDOWS

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

computer concepts
Computer Concepts
  • COMPUTER
    • Is an electronic device that can perform prescribed operation given to it.
  • Computer System
    • Hardware
      • Is the computer’s physical components such as the keyboard, screen and printer
    • Software
      • Is the computer programs containing a set of instructions that tell the hardware what to do.

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

slide4
Categories of Software
    • Application software
      • Includes programs written to accomplish as specific task (or application) such as word processor, spreadsheet or database program.
    • System software
      • Includes programs that are necessary for your computer to run. These are programs that direct hardware related tasks. For instance, operating systems.

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

basic parts of a computer
Input Unit

Computer accept coded information by means of input units, which is consists of devices capable of reading such data.

Example: keyboard, mouse, scanner

Memory Unit

Sole function is to store programs and data.

Classes of Memory devices:

Primary Storage (main memory)

Is a fast memory capable of operating at electronic speed, where programs & data are stores during execution.

Examples:

RAM (random access memory)

Used to store volatile programs & data

ROM (read-only memory)

Is non-volatile memory

Secondary Storage

Used when a large amount of information have to be stores particularly if some of these data need not be accessed frequently.

Example: disk

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

Execution of most operation with in the computer.

Basic Parts of a Computer

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

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CU (Control Unit)
    • Sends control signals to other units of the computer system.
    • Coordinates the operation of the computer system to maintain its proper operation.
  • Output Unit
    • Is to return the processed result to the outside world.
    • Examples: monitor, printer

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

unit 1 1 introduction to computer system2
UNIT 1.1 Introduction to Computer System
  • Number System
  • Computer Concepts
  • Operating System – DOS
  • Operating System – WINDOWS

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

operating system
Operating System
  • A collection of programs that supervises all the activities that take place within a computer.

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

disk operating system dos
Four parts of DOS:

System files

Internal Commands / Programs

External Commends / Programs

DOS Utility Programs

System Files

command.com

IBMBIO.com (IO.sys)

IBMDOS.com (MSDOS.sys)

Internal DOS Commands

Reside in the memory as part of command.com

Two parts of command.com

Resident part

Transient part

External Commands

Commands which need an external files to be loaded to memory for its execution.

DOS must locate the command on disk and then loaded into computer memory.

Precede the command name with directory path to the program file.

DOS Utility Programs

Programs used for specialized purpose.

Disk Operating System (DOS)

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

booting the computer
BOOTING THE COMPUTER
  • Booting, starting the computer
  • Perform to program that reside the ROM
  • POST (Power On Self Test)
    • Check the existence of necessary peripheral devices of the computer
  • Bootstrap Loader
    • Short routine that loads necessary programs to boot DOS.
  • DOS is the first program your computer run each time it starts.
  • Bootable disk
    • Is a system disk capable of starting DOS
  • Ways computer can be reset/restart:
    • Turn OFF the power switch then turn it ON again
    • Press reset button
    • Press Ctrl+Alt+Del keys at the same time

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

dos common internal commands
DOS Common Internal Commands
  • Clearing the screen
    • Syntax: CLS
  • Changing drive
    • Syntax: target_drive:
  • Display the version of DOS
    • Syntax: VER
  • Display the current date
    • Syntax: DATE or DATE mm-dd-yy
  • Display current time
    • Syntax: TIME or TIME hh:mm:ss
  • Modifies the DOS prompt
    • Syntax: A:> PROMPT desired_prompt
  • Displays files inside the disk
    • Syntax: DIR or DIR/option

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

dos common internal commands1
DOS Common Internal Commands
  • Change the filename of the existing file
    • Syntax: REN old_name new_name
  • Copies file’s content to another file / disk
    • Syntax: COPY source_file target_file
    • Syntax: A:> COPY C: filename B:
  • Creating a file
    • Syntax: COPYCON target_file
  • Display content of a text file
    • Syntax: TYPE target_file
  • Delete file(s) from the disk
    • Syntax: DEL target_file
  • Help on DOS command options, syntax format
    • Synatax: DOS_command/?
    • Example: DIR/?, COPY/?

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

slide13
Working with group of files
    • WILDCARD characters (* and ?), help select a group of files
    • Replaces the character with the name of all matching files
    • The Asterisk Wildcard (*)
      • Perform file operation s on a group of files by specifying “don’t care” character positions within the filename or extension
    • The Question Mark Wildcard (?)
      • Directs DOS to ignore the character in the position containing the wildcard.
      • Represent only one character position.
  • Redirection (>)
    • To redirect the output from the terminal screen to a file or to a printer.
    • Example: A:> DIR > files.dat
    • A:> TYPE files.dat > prn
  • Creating Batch Files
    • Batch File
      • Is a file that contains the name of one or more DOS commands.
      • Uses BAT extension
    • Autoexec.bat
      • Most useful batch file
      • Unique from all other batch files because each time the computer starts, DOS automatically locates and executes the command in this special file.

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

dos common external commands
DOS Common External Commands
  • Prepares a disk for use by DOS
    • Creates File Allocation Table (FAT)
      • Contains info to keep track of the used, unused and bad sector
    • External file: format.com
    • Syntax: FORMAT disk_drive:
  • Recover the data of the newly formatted disk
    • External file: unformat.com
    • Syntax: UNFORMAT disk_drive:
  • Used to make copies of a disk
    • External file: diskcopy.com
    • Syntax: DISKCOPY source_drive: target_drive:
  • Copies files, advance form of COPY command
    • External file: xcopy.com
    • Syntax: XCOPY source_drive: target_drive: /option

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

dos common external commands1
DOS Common External Commands
  • Copies system ile from one disk to another
    • External file: sys.com
    • Syntax: SYS target_drive:
  • Creates or change the volume label of disk
    • External file: label.exe
    • Syntax: LABEL target_drive: volume_name
  • Modifies the attribute of a file
    • External file: attribute.exe
    • Syntax: ATTRIB option target_file
  • Collects a previous DOS commands
    • External file: doskey.com
    • Syntax: DOSKEY
  • Displays all directories present on your disk
    • External file: tree.com
    • Syntax: TREE

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

dos directories
DOS Directories
  • Root directory (\)
  • Internal commands in working with directories:
    • MD – make directory
    • CD – change directory
      • CD\ – returns to root directory
      • CD.. – returns the user to parent
    • RD – remove directory
      • Before using RD command:
        • Erase all content of the directory (files & subdirectories)
        • Remove all directory & its parent or at a much higher directory

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

unit 1 1 introduction to computer system3
UNIT 1.1 Introduction to Computer System
  • Number System
  • Computer Concepts
  • Operating System – DOS
  • Operating System – WINDOWS

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

introduction to windows
INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS
  • Windows is a graphical operating system. Users communicate with the computer by choosing items or menu options & small graphical images instead of typing hard-to-recall text commands such as were found in older operating system such as DOS. It is greatly made easy for users to use different software without having to learn new commands in a new environment or application.

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

mouse
MOUSE
  • an input device which is cable connected to the PC through a serial port or special “ mouse port ”
  • it has a mouse ball that senses the movement of the mouse
  • it is implemented in Windows through:
    • select menu commands
    • move icons
    • size windows
    • start programs
    • choose options
  • a pointer on the screen that represents the mouse is called MOUSE POINTER
  • COMMON MOUSE TERM

Point moves the pointer on the screen until it is over the desired location or object.Click quickly press & release the left mouse buttonDouble-click quick press the left mouse button twiceDrag hold down the left mouse button while moving the mouseDrag & Drop hold down the left mouse button while moving the mouse; release the mouse button when the pointer is over the desired location

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

slide20
Icon
    • a picture representing a program, disk, drive, file, folder or other items
  • COMMON Desktop Setup

Desktop the entire background area of your screen; represents your working environment when you are operating your PC

START button as a starting point for day-to-day activities such as running programs, opening & editing document & finding files

Taskbar helps you monitor & switch between the various activities you’ll perform

Sound Volume Control for multimedia computing, provides a quick way of changing the sound volume

Time Box you’ll see the current time displayed at the right end of the Taskbar; double-clicking, easily reset time when wrong

My Computer allows you to browse the disk drives on your PC

Recycle Bin represents a temporary storage are on your hard disk for files you no longer need; retrieve file that is in the Recycle Bin; once emptied, file is irretrievable

Microsoft Exchange Inbox provides access to Microsoft exchange, a feature that allows you to send & receive e-mail messages and fax message & to view & organize all your message in one place

Network Neighborhood provides a gateway to any other computers connected to your PC as part of a network

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

features of windows
FEATURES OF WINDOWS

Control Icon menu of commands for moving, resizing & closing the window

Title Bar contains the window’s name

Menu Bar causes a drop-down menu to appear

Minimize Button shrinks the window so that it appear only as a button on the Taskbar

Maximize/ switches the window between its maximum size & the smaller size

Restore Button to which it was previously set

Close Button closes the window

Status Bar contains information or messages relevant to the contents or activity in the window

Window Borders dragging, resizing the window

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

slide22
Shutdown & Reset
    • to use Shut Down menu, which prepares the computer to be turned off or restarted
  • LAUNCHING PROGRAMS
    • Using the Programs Menu
      • programs groups on the Programs menu depend on what software has been installed on the PC
    • Launching from the Folder window
      • by finding a program’s icon in the folder where it’s located & double-clicking on icon
    • Using the RUN command
      • from the Start menu

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

slide23
Control Panel
    • provides you with a number of utilities that allow you to set up Windows & your computer hardware in a way that suits you
  • Help System
    • consists of step by step instructions on hundreds of Windows tasks; there is specific Help System for each Windows accessory

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

accessories
Accessories
  • a group of programs consists of various utilities that can help you get the most out of your PC.

System Tools contain tools for managing & maintaining your hard & floppy disk

Scandisk check your disk surface, files & folders for errors & to repair damaged area

Disk Defragmenter rearranges files & folders on your hard disk so that program can run faster

Multimedia to use these accessories in this program group one must have a sound card installed; any combination of text, pictures, sound & video

CD Player play audio CD in your CD-ROM drive

Media player play audio, video or animation files & to control settings for multimedia hardware devices

Sound Recorder to record, play & edit sound files; microphone for live recording

Games

Word Pad mini word processing program

Calculator helps perform calculations

HyperTerminal Connections exchange files with a remote computer via modem or connect to computer bulletin boards

Phone Dialer automatically dial a telephone number from any PC w/ modem attached

Character Map to insert special characters into documents

Note Pad very basic word processing program

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming

slide25
Organizing Files & Folders
    • to create some new folders, move existing files into those folders & perhaps rename & delete some files
  • Windows Explorer
    • a feature you can use to view the contents of your computer & network drives in a hierarchical structure
  • Find, Shortcuts & Timesavers, Running MS-DOS
    • find from the Start menu
    • creating / removing shortcut onto desktop; Shortcut is an icon that links to a file or folder
    • running MS-DOS (opening; using & customize the prompt window; properties)

COM E 211: Basic Computer Programming