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RAC on Windows 2003. Julian Dyke Independent Consultant. Web Version. juliandyke.com. Introduction. This presentation describes Windows specific RAC configuration issues including: Installation Pre installation steps Installing Oracle Clusterware Installing Oracle Database Software

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rac on windows 2003

RAC on Windows 2003

Julian Dyke

Independent Consultant

Web Version

juliandyke.com

introduction
Introduction
  • This presentation describes Windows specific RAC configuration issues including:
    • Installation
      • Pre installation steps
      • Installing Oracle Clusterware
      • Installing Oracle Database Software
      • Patches
      • Post installation steps
    • Administration
      • Services
      • Networking
warning
Warning
  • This presentation is intended to supplement information in the Oracle documentation
  • It is NOT intended to replace the Oracle documentation
  • Most of the information contained in this presentation was correct for Oracle 10.2
    • Some information applies to earlier releases
    • Where appropriate this is highlighted in the slides
overview
Overview
  • Oracle RAC is available on Windows in
    • Standard Edition
    • Enterprise Edition
  • Standard Edition must use Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
  • Enterprise Edition can use
    • Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
    • Oracle Cluster File System (OCFS)
shared oracle home
Shared Oracle Home
  • Oracle Clusterware (CRS) MUST be installed in a local directory on each node
  • Oracle Database Software can be installed in a shared Oracle home on the cluster file system
pre installation steps
Pre-Installation Steps
  • Pre-Installation tasks include:
    • Check public interface is first in bind order
    • Disable Windows Media Sensing for TCP/IP
    • Disable Write Caching on Shared Storage
    • Enable Auto-mounting
    • Local drives must be accessible from all nodes
    • Environment variables
    • System clocks must be synchronized
public interface bind order
Public Interface Bind Order
  • The public interface must be the first in the bind order
  • To check this
    • Start Windows Explorer
    • Right click on My Network Places and choose Properties
    • In the Advanced menu click Advanced Settings...
    • In the Adapters and Bindings tab
      • If the public interface is not the first name listed
        • Click the arrow to move it to the top of the list
        • Click OK to save the setting
windows media sensing for tcp ip
Windows Media Sensing for TCP/IP
  • Windows Media Sensing for TCP/IP must be disabled
  • To check this
    • Run REGEDT32.EXE
    • Navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters
    • Add the following registry entry:
      • Right click on right hand pane and select
        • New -> DWORD value

Value Name: DisableDHCPMediaSenseValue: 1

  • NOTE- It is recommended that you backup the registry before making changes usingREDEDT32.EXE / REGEDIT.EXE
write caching
Write Caching
  • Write Caching must be disabled on shared storage
  • To disable write caching at operating system level:
    • Start->Settings->Control Panel->Administrative Tools-> Computer Management->Device Manager->Disk Drives
    • Expand the disk drives list
    • Double-click the first drive listed
      • On the Disk Properties tab uncheck the write cache enabled option
    • Repeat for all remaining disk drives
  • Not necessary if using HP Array Manager as write caching is automatically disabled at operating system level
disk manager
Disk Manager
  • To start the Disk Management tool:
    • Start->Administrative Tools->Computer Management->Storage->Disk Management
  • Alternatively the Disk Management tool can be started from the command line using:

C:> DISKMGMT.MSC

auto mounting
Auto-Mounting
  • Auto-mounting must be enabled when using
    • RAC with raw partitions
    • RAC with cluster file system
    • Oracle Clusterware
    • Logical drives for ASM
  • Auto-mounting must be enabled on each node in the cluster
  • To check if auto-mounting is enabled use:

C:> DISKPARTDISKPART> AUTOMOUNT

Automatic mounting of new volumes disabled

auto mounting14
Auto-Mounting
  • To enable auto-mounting use:

C:> DISKPARTDISKPART> AUTOMOUNT ENABLE

Automatic mounting of new volumes enabledDISKPART> EXIT

  • Repeat on each node in the cluster
  • Restart all nodes after configuring this setting
local drive accessibility
Local Drive Accessibility
  • Local drives must be accessible from all nodes
  • To check local drive accessibility:
    • For each node
      • For each local drive to be used by the Oracle installation
        • Use NET USE command to confirm accessibility
  • For example if Oracle will be installed on E$ in a two-node cluster containing nodes RAC1 and RAC2
  • On RAC1:

NET USE \\RAC2\E$

  • On RAC2:

NET USE \\RAC1\E$

environment variables
Environment Variables
  • On each node the following environment variables must be set
    • TEMP
    • TMP
  • By default these are set to
    • %USERPROFILE%\Local Settings\Temp
  • Oracle recommends these are redefined as follows
    • TEMP=C:\TEMP
    • TMP=C:\TMP
  • These settings should be the same on each node
time synchronization
Time Synchronization
  • It is recommended that the system clocks are synchronized between all nodes in the cluster
    • appears to be less important in Oracle 10g Release 2 than in previous RAC versions
  • To synchronize the system clocks enable the Windows Time Service on one node
  • The current time server for a node can be discovered using:

NET TIME /QUERYSNTPThe current SNTP server is: node2

  • The current time server for a node can be set using:

NET TIME /SETSNTP:<hostname>

  • For example:

NET TIME /SETSNTP:SGHRAC1

time synchronization18
Time Synchronization
  • The current time on a node can be discovered using

NET TIME \\NODE1 Current time at \\NODE1 is 20/02/2006 10:50

  • To initially synchronize the time use

NET TIME \\NODE1 /SETCurrent time at \\NODE1 is 20/02/2006 10:56

The current local clock is 20/03/2006 10:54Do you want to set the local computer's time to match the time at \\node1? (Y/N) [Y]: yThe command completed successfully.

oracle clusterware installation
Oracle Clusterware Installation
  • To install Oracle Clusterware
    • Login as Local Administrator only
  • The documentation states that Clusterware can be installed using Domain Administrator
    • Installation currently fails when attempting to start Clusterware services
oracle clusterware installation21
Oracle Clusterware Installation
  • In Oracle 10.1 Oracle Clusterware was called Cluster Ready Services (CRS)
  • In Oracle 10.1 to set up CRS run CRS/SETUP.EXE
  • DO NOT run CRS/INSTALL/SETUP.exe
    • This will cause the installation to fail.
    • See Metalink Note 277688.1 - CRS Install: Failed to locate service OracleCSSService on second node
  • Also make sure that the install path does not include any spaces
  • In Oracle 10.2 there is only one SETUP.EXE program
oracle clusterware installation22
Oracle Clusterware Installation
  • During installation the OracleClusterPreInstService is installed on each node to provide a list of available drives
  • This service uses ORACLECLUSTERPREINSTSERVICE.EXE
oracle clusterware installation23
Oracle Clusterware Installation
  • To manually delete a failed clusterware installation:
  • Stop and delete all Oracle services. For example:

SC STOP OracleCRServiceSC DELETE OracleCRService

  • Delete contents of Oracle Clusterware home directory
  • If required delete Oracle inventory directory
    • C:\Program Files\Oracle
  • Use REGEDIT to remove Oracle keys from registry
    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Oracle
  • Use Oracle Object Manager to delete links to OCR and Voting disk
oracle object manager
Oracle Object Manager
  • If using raw devices
    • Oracle Object Manager is used to create links for
      • OCR
      • Voting Disk
  • Pathname is
    • %ORACLE_HOME%\bin\GUIObjectOBJManager
  • Link names are:
    • ocrcfg
    • votedsk1
  • Executed automatically by the OUI during installation
  • Must be executed manually during manual deinstallation
database installation
Database Installation
  • The script %ORACLE_HOME%\bin\SelectHome.bat must be executed on all remote nodes to activate the following products:
    • Oracle Data Provider for .NET
    • Oracle Provide for OLE DB
    • Oracle Objects for OLE
    • Oracle Counters for Windows Performance Monitor
    • Oracle Administration Assistant
automatic storage management
Automatic Storage Management
  • ASM disks must be stamped before they can be used by ASM
  • Can be stamped
    • Using ASMTOOL command line utility
    • Using ASMTOOLG GUI utility
    • During ASM instance creation process in DBCA
cluster file system
Cluster File System
  • If selected in the Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) session then the Oracle Cluster File System is installed automatically
  • It is not necessary to download OCFS separately (as would be the case in Linux for example)
cluster file system33
Cluster File System
  • To create partitions use OCFSFORMAT
  • Recommended block sizes are:
  • For example:

OCFSFORMAT /l R:/C 1024 /V REDO

patches
Patches
  • In addition to normal patch sets additional cumulative patches are issued for Oracle on Windows platforms
  • For example
    • 10.1.0.3 Patch 5
    • 10.2.0.1 Patch 3
  • Install the latest cumulative patch for the platform
  • For example in Oracle 10.2 available patches include
    • 10.2.0.1.0 Patch 2 (10.2.0.1.2P) Patch 4751342
    • 10.2.0.1.0 Patch 3 (10.2.0.1.3P) Patch 4751539
    • 10.2.0.1.0 Patch 4 (10.2.0.1.4P) Patch 4923768
  • At the time of writing Patch 4 was recommended
patches36
Patches
  • Current Windows patch sets are documented on Metalink
  • For Oracle 10.1
    • See Metalink Note 276548.1 - 10.1.0.x Oracle Database and Networking Patches for Microsoft Platforms
  • For Oracle 10.2
    • See Metalink Note 342443.1 10.2.0.x Oracle Database and Networking Patches for Microsoft Platforms
  • Both reference
    • Note 161549.1 - Oracle Database Server and Networking Patches for Microsoft Platforms
patch set installation
Patch Set Installation
  • Installing Oracle 10.1.0.3 Patch 5
  • The patch set should be installed in both the Clusterware home and the Oracle database home Run Setup.exe in the Oracle database home
  • After installing the CRS Patch on each node stop all CRS services (Service Management)
      • OracleCRService
      • OracleEVMService
      • OracleCSService
      • OracleClusterVolumeService
  • Run C:\Oracle\product\10.1\crs\install\patch10103.bat
  • After installing Oracle database software patch on one node, run $ORACLE_HOME\bin\SelectHome.bat on remaining nodes
patch set installation38
Patch Set Installation
  • Installing Oracle 10.2.0.1 Patch 3
  • The patch set should only be installed in the Oracle database home and does not affect CRS
  • Patch is installed using OPATCH
  • OPATCH should be upgraded to 10.2.0.1.1 or above
    • Patch# : 4898608
  • Stop all services using %ORACLE_HOME%
  • Install 10.2.0.1.3 using

OPATCH APPLY

patch set installation39
Patch Set Installation
  • Installing Oracle 10.2.0.1 Patch 4
  • The patch set should be installed in both the Clusterware and RDBMS home directories
    • Patch 4: 4923768
  • Patch is installed using OPATCH
  • OPATCH should be upgraded to 10.2.0.1.1 or above in both Clusterware and RDBMS home directories
    • Patch# : 4898608
  • Stop all services using %ORACLE_HOME%
  • Install 10.2.0.1 Patch 4 using

OPATCH APPLY

post installation
Post Installation
  • Post installation tasks include:
    • Make files node-specific (Shared Oracle home only)
    • Create ORA_DBA group on remaining nodes
    • Set Log on as a Batch Job privilege for Enterprise Manager users
make files node specific
Make Files Node-Specific
  • If using shared Oracle Home on OCFS file system
    • After database creation using DBCA the HC files must be made node-specific.
    • Applies to Oracle 10.1 (at least)
  • On each host these files have the pathname:

%ORACLE_HOME%\DATABASE\HC_<instance_name>.DAT

  • For example on instance RAC1

%ORACLE_HOME%\DATABASE\HC_RAC1.DAT

make files node specific43
Make Files Node-Specific
  • For example on node node1:

srvctl stop instance -d RAC -i RAC1

ocfsutil /c NodeSpecificFile /o create /m h: /p oracle\product\10.1.0\db\database\hc_rac1.dat

srvctl start instance -d RAC -i RAC1

  • Repeat for remaining instances
log on as a batch job
Log on as a batch job
  • Users must have the Log on as a batch job privilege for Enterprise Manager to work correctly
    • Start->Administrative Tools->Local Security Policy->
    • Security Settings->Local Policies->
    • User Rights Assignment->Log on as a batch job
    • Assign privilege for each administrative users
    • Repeat on each node
  • There is a description of this problem in Metalink
    • Note 279765.1 "Error Message 'RemoteOperationException: ERROR: Wrong password for users' when trying to startup or shutdown the database from the Enterprise Manager console"
  • There is a description of the resolution in Metalink
    • Note 109188.1 How to Set "Logon as a Batch Job" Privileges on Windows 2000 Systems
ora dba group
ORA_DBA Group
  • Administrators must be members of this group on each node in order to use / AS SYSDBA
  • By default ORA_DBA group is only created on installation node
    • Not created on remaining nodes
    • Must be created manually
  • See Metalink Notes
    • 177354.1 RAC: Connect AS SYSDBA Fails with ORA-01031
    • 77665.1 - Guide to setup/enable OS authentication to Connect using OS user account
ora dba group46
ORA_DBA Group
  • To create new ORA_DBA group and add users
    • Start->Administrative Tools->Computer Management->
    • System Tools->Local Users and Groups->Groups
    • Right click and select New
    • Name is ORA_DBA
    • Description is Oracle DBA Group
    • Add user e.g. XYZDOM\abc.admin
environment variables48
Environment Variables
  • Environment variables are stored in the registry
  • Can be set using:
    • Start -> Control Panel -> System ->
    • Advanced-> Environment Variables
registry keys
Registry Keys
  • Oracle registry entries are stored in
    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Oracle
  • The inventory location is defined in
    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Oracle\inst_loc
  • The default inventory location is:
    • C:\Program Files\Oracle\Inventory
  • The Oracle Cluster Repository location is stored in
    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Oracle\OCR\ocrconfig_loc
registry
Registry
  • By default CRS-related keys are stored in
    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Oracle\KEY_OraCr10g_home
  • For example
    • ORA_CRS_HOME
    • ORACLE_HOME
  • By default database keys are stored in
    • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Oracle\KEY_OraDb10g_home
  • For example
    • ORACLE_BASE
    • ORACLE_HOME
    • ORACLE_SID
scheduler
Scheduler
  • Windows contains a job scheduler
  • To schedule a job e.g. overnight backup use
    • Start->Control Panel->Scheduled Tasks->
    • Add Scheduled Task
  • A wizard will step through the configuration steps
services
Services
  • Oracle uses Windows services
    • Similar to Unix daemons
    • Configured in windows registry
  • All Oracle services have the "Oracle" prefix
  • The following services are created during Clusterware installation
    • Oracle Object Service
    • OracleClusterVolumeService
    • OracleCRService
    • OracleCSService
    • OracleEVMService
services54
Services
  • The following services are created by DBCA during ASM instance configuration
    • OracleOraDb10g_home1TNSListenerLISTENER_<node>
    • OracleASMService<ASM_instance_name>
  • The following services are created by DBCA during database instance configuration
    • OracleJobScheduler<instance_name>
    • OracleService<instance_name>
    • OracleDBConsole<Instance_name>
services55
Services
  • Windows services can be controlled in three ways
    • Using the GUI
    • Using the NET command
    • Using the SC command
services56
Services
  • To control services using the GUI
    • Start->Administrative Tools->Services
    • Click on a service from the list of available services
  • Alternatively the Service Management tool can be started from the command line using:

C:> SERVICES.MSC

  • Single click allows you to control the service including:
    • Start / Stop
    • Pause/Continue
    • Restart
services57
Services
  • Double click allows you to manage the service including:
    • Start / Stop / Pause / Continue
    • Specify the startup type
      • Automatic
      • Manual
      • Disabled
    • Change the login type
      • Local System Account
      • Named User
    • Specify recovery parameters
    • Specify dependencies
services58
Services
  • Services can be controlled using the NET command
  • To check which services are running use:

NET START

  • Use the MORE command to control the output

NET START | MORE

  • Note that this command only prints information about services which are currently running
  • Use the SC command to list services which are currently stopped
services59
Services
  • To start a service use:

NET START <service_name>

  • For example:

NET START OracleServiceRAC1

  • To stop a service use:

NET STOP <service_name>

  • For example:

NET STOP OracleServiceRAC1

services60
Services
  • Services can also be controlled using the SC command
  • Available on Windows 2003 and Windows XP
  • To print the help message use:

SC

  • This prints generic help and asks if you wish to see help
  • for the QUERY and QUERYEX options
services61
Services
  • To start a service use:

SC START <service_name>

  • For example:

SC START OracleServiceRAC1

  • To stop a service use:

SC STOP <service_name>

  • For example:

SC STOP OracleServiceRAC1

services62
Services
  • To query the status of all running services use:

SC QUERY

  • To query the status of all services use:

SC QUERY STATE= ALL

  • Note that the syntax for this command is very sensitive
  • You must have
    • No space between STATE and =
    • Space between = and ALL
  • Use the MORE command to control the output:

SC QUERY STATE= ALL | MORE

services63
Services
  • To query the status of an individual service use:

SC QUERY <service_name>

  • For example:

SC QUERY OracleServiceRAC1

C:\> SC QUERY OracleServiceRAC1SERVICE_NAME: OracleServiceRAC1 TYPE : 10 WIN32_OWN_PROCESS STATE : 4 RUNNING (STOPPABLE, PAUSABLE, ACCEPTS_SHUTDOWN) WIN32_EXIT_CODE : 0 (0x0) SERVICE_EXIT_CODE : 0 (0x0) CHECKPOINT : 0x0 WAIT_HINT : 0x0

services64
Services
  • To delete an individual service use:

SC DELETE <service_name>

  • For example:

SC DELETE OracleCRService

  • This may be necessary if you need to:
    • tidy up after a failed installation
    • remove Oracle manually
tasklist
Tasklist
  • To list relationship between processes and services use:

TASKLIST /SVC

  • For example:

C:\> TASKLIST /SVCImage Name PID Services--------------------- ---- --------------evmd.exe 2236 OracleEVMServicecrsd.exe 2216 OracleCRService TNSLSNR.EXE 4936 OracleOraDb10g_home1TNSListenerLISTENER_NODE1OracleOBJService.exe 832 Oracle Object Serviceoracle.exe 1964 OracleASMService+ASMOcfsFindVol.exe 1552 OracleClusterVolumeServicenmesrvc.exe 1580 OracleDBConsolePDS1oracle.exe 1628 OracleServicePDS1ocssd.exe 2412 OracleCSService

hosts
Hosts
  • In Windows the hosts file is typically located in
    • C:\Windows\System32\Drivers\etc
  • The format is similar to Unix. For example:

RAC1 10.47.0.101RAC2 10.47.0.102

RAC1-vip 10.47.0.201RAC2-vip 10.47.0.202

RAC1-priv 192.168.0.1RAC2-priv 192.168.0.2

hostname
HOSTNAME
  • The name of the current node can be obtained at the command line using the HOSTNAME command
  • For example

C:\> HOSTNAMEnode1

slide69
PING
  • As in Unix the PING utility can be used to verify network connections
  • By default only four ICMP probes are performed
  • For example:

C:\> PING NODE2Pinging NODE2 [10.131.60.202] with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from 10.131.60.202: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128Reply from 10.131.60.202: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128Reply from 10.131.60.202: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128Reply from 10.131.60.202: bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=128

Ping statistics for 10.131.60.202: Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss).Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds: Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms

slide70
PING
  • By default PING uses a packet size of 32 bytes.
  • The default TCP/IP packet size is around 1400 bytes
    • Can be increased by configuring jumbo frames
    • Maximum packet size with jumbo frames is about 9000 bytes (network card and switch specific)
  • To confirm that the network has been correctly configured to use jumbo frames use the ping command:

PING -L <packet_size> -F <hostname>

  • where <packet_size> is the size in bytes
  • For example

PING -L 1600 -F RAC1

slide71
PING
  • For example assume the default TCP/IP configuration

C:\> PING -L 1400 -F NODE2Pinging NODE2 [10.131.60.202] with 1400 bytes of data:

Reply from 10.131.60.202: bytes=1400 time<1ms TTL=128Reply from 10.131.60.202: bytes=1400 time<1ms TTL=128Reply from 10.131.60.202: bytes=1400 time<1ms TTL=128Reply from 10.131.60.202: bytes=1400 time<1ms TTL=128

......

C:\> PING -L 1600 -F NODE2Pinging NODE2 [10.131.60.202] with 1600 bytes of data:

Packet needs to be fragmented but DF setPacket needs to be fragmented but DF setPacket needs to be fragmented but DF setPacket needs to be fragmented but DF set

.....

ipconfig
IPCONFIG
  • IPCONFIG can be used to verify network configurations
  • Similar to ifconfig on Unix systems
  • For example:

C:\> IPCONFIG

Windows IP Configuration

Ethernet adapter Public Team:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 10.131.60.201 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0 IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 10.131.60.101 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.0.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 10.131.60.254

Ethernet adapter Private Team:

Connection-specific DNS Suffix . : IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.200.1 Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0 Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :

Virtual IPAddress

Public IPAddress

Private IPAddress

slide73
ARP
  • As on Unix systems ARP can be used to view the current contents of the ARP cache
  • Maps IP addresses to MAC (Ethernet) addresses
  • For example:

C:\> ARP-A

Interface: 10.130.60.230 --- 0x10005 Internet Address Physical Address Type 10.131.60.96 00-0b-cd-3a-19-48 dynamic 10.131.60.202 00-15-60-55-12-81 dynamic 10.131.60.203 00-0b-cd-6d-3c-5b dynamic 10.131.60.207 00-0f-20-f9-c9-ba dynamic 10.131.60.209 00-0f-20-f9-84-65 dynamic 10.131.60.210 00-0b-cd-41-b5-72 dynamic

Interface: 192.168.200.1 --- 0x10006 Internet Address Physical Address Type 192.168.200.2 00-11-0a-5a-42-63 dynamic

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Thanks for help in the preparation of this presentation to:
    • Stephen Bendall
    • Tak Tang
    • John Plowman
    • Lee Cashmore
    • Dirk Schmidt
    • Davy Witvrouwen
  • Julian Dyke
    • Independent Consultant
    • Web Site : www.juliandyke.com
    • Email: info@juliandyke.com
    • Mobile: +44 7917 360777