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Chapter 19. Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1750. I. Ottoman Empire to 1750. A. Expansion and Frontiers NW. Anatolia - Turkish nomad horsemen, founder Osman Gallipoli key link - Asia/Europe Army -Turkish cavalry and gunpowder

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Chapter 19

Chapter 19

Southwest Asia and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1750

I ottoman empire to 1750
I. Ottoman Empire to 1750

A. Expansion and Frontiers

  • NW. Anatolia - Turkish nomad horsemen, founder Osman

  • Gallipoli key link - Asia/Europe

  • Army -Turkish cavalry and gunpowder

  • 1402 - most of Anatolia/SE Europe under Ottoman control, setback by Mongol Timur

  • 1453 - Sultan Mehmed II captured Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul

  • 1514 - Battle of Chaldiran, Selim I ended Safavid threat, soon conquered Mamluk Egypt

  • Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) – further expansion into S/E Europe, failed siege of Vienna in 1529

  • Conflict with Venice over control of Mediterranean

B central institutions
B. Central Institutions

  • Balkans -Christian POW’s forced to fight in army

  • Janissaries – convert to Islam, foot soldiers, guns

  • devshirme – new system imposed a regular levy on male children in Christian villages

  • Opportunities – education

  • Cosmopolitan empire – language and military

  • Askeri – military/bureaucracy, no taxes, paid by sultan

  • 1500s – conflict with Charles V and Phillip II

  • 1580 - capture Cyprus from Venice

  • Cavalrymen maintained order, collected taxes, of rural areas of the empire

  • Central gov. seldom involved with subjects; justice sought in religious courts

C crisis of the military state 1585 1650
C. Crisis of the Military State 1585-1650

  • Cavalry shrank, firearms/cannons - Janissaries grew in importance

  • Mid-16thC. Sultan reduced landholding of cavalry to pay for janissaries

  • Late-16thC. problems with silver, lack of Ottoman sultans’ response

  • Students/professionals in madrasas hard to live with limited endowment

  • Government levied emergency surtaxes to pay jan./bur. -added partially trained soldiers to army who were out of work once the summer campaigns ended.

  • Revolts/banditry resulted in 1590-1610; former cavalrymen, peasants, and short term soldiers, and impoverished students

  • Janissaries started to marry and engage in business; previously not allowed

D economic change and growing weakness 1650 1750
D. Economic Change and Growing weakness 1650-1750

  • Sultans – hostages, fratricide

  • Sultan’s mother/chief Eunuch

  • Grand viziers

  • (Devshirme discontinued) Janissaries power grew/positions hereditary

  • Became involved in crafts/trading

  • Land grants for service stopped; tax farming instead

  • Imperial government came to rely on provincial governors/wealthy men for administration of lands

  • Subsistent farmers switched from grain to cotton/tobacco

  • Power of military fell; Janissaries hired ill-trained substitutes to fight instead

  • 1683 – second failed attempt to take Vienna

  • 1718-1730 “Tulip Period”

  • 1730 Janissary revolt and Sultan Ahmed III abdicates, Patrona Halil governs till captured/killed

  • Mid 18thC. Mamluks regained dominance in Egypt; Arabia, Sunni movement led by Abd al-Wahhab rose

Ii the safavid empire
II. The Safavid Empire

A. The Rise of the Safavids

  • Death of Timur - Ismail claimed himself Shah of Iran in 1502

  • Shi’ite Islam - Sunni beliefs to be abandoned (majority Sunni)

  • Ismail’s Sufi brotherhood, fought on his behalf, known as the Qizilbash.

  • Iranian subjects resisted, and neighboring lands gave refugee to Sunnis

  • Ismail’s son Tahmasp successful - Shi’ite Iran

B society and religion
B. Society And Religion

  • By 1500 a library of legal/theological writings; epic, lyric, and poetry

  • Iranian scholars/writers knew both Arabic/Persian

  • Iran made contacts with India, where Muslim rulers made Persian language of the government

  • Persian Poets Hafez(1319-1389) and Sa’di(1215-1291) made morally instructive/allegorical poetry popular

  • All Muslim areas had mosques/madrasas that trained the Ulama to interpret the Shari’a, but local understandings of traditions varied

  • Impact of Shi’ism in Iran significant; Shi’ite doctrine says that temporal rulers are stand-ins for the “Hidden Imam” the twelfth descendent of Ali

C a tale of two cities isfahan and istanbul
C. A Tale of Two Cities: Isfahan and Istanbul

  • BOTH

  • No wheeled vehicles, used camels

  • Both cities had guilds that were socially/economically bonded

  • Women seldom in public; women’s quarters in Iran = anderun “interior” and in Istanbul called harem or “forbidden area”

  • Islamic law, unlike European codes, allowed women to hold property after marriage, and could testify in court.

ISFAHAN - Safavid

  • became Iran’s capitol in 1598 by decree of Shah Abbas I (1587-1629) ;

  • featured brick domes covered with tiles, and unobtrusive minarets

  • far from the sea, traded more with Jews/Hindus/Armenians

  • located away from danger in the center of Iran

ISTANBUL - Ottoman

  • built on seven hills had lots of gray lead domed mosques and pointed minarets including Aya Sophya (Hagia Sophia)

  • traded with European often due to harbor

D economic crisis political collapse
D. Economic Crisis & Political Collapse

  • Silk from N. Iran main foreign trade; manufacturing carpets made by yarn/threads associated with Iran: different carpets per city (Women/child)

  • Most of shah’s subjects lived by subsistence farming or herding

  • Shah grants large sections of land to Qizilbash nomads in return for warriors

  • Safavids had difficulty paying troops armed with firearms; needed firearms/artillery to fight of Ottomans/Uzbeks

  • Nomad warriors refused to trade arrows for guns; Shah had to employ slave corps of annul soldiers armed with guns

  • Christian converts to Islam added to troops and grew to hold power

  • Late 1500s -inflation caused by cheap silver spread into Iran; overland trade declined due to mismanagement of silk due to death of shah Abbas (1629)

  • Removal of nomads from their land proved difficult (needed the taxes)

  • 1722 - Afghan’s captured Isfahan/ended Safavid rule

  • Safavids never possessed a navy and (Portuguese captured Gulf island of Hormuz)

  • Shah relied on English/Dutch naval support; Nadir shah unified Iran briefly between 1736-1747, purchased naval vessels from English

Iii mughal empire 1526 1761
III. Mughal Empire 1526-1761

A. Political Foundations

  • Descendent of Timur, Babur (1483-1530) founded Mughal Empire; invaded from C. Asia and defeated sultan of Delhi at Battle of Panipat in 1526

  • India = primary area of Mughal accomplishment; Babur’s grandson Akbar (1556-1605) established the central administration of the state

  • Akbar granted land revenues (mansabs) to military officers/government officials in return for service. (nonhereditary)

  • Economy was based on cotton cloth, and administration; foreign trade boomed at port of Surat in NW, also point of embarkation to Mecca

  • Mughals had no navy, Indian merchant ships were privately owned

    B. Hindus and Muslims

  • Muslim destruction of Hindus cultural monuments, the expansion of Muslim territory, and POW’s/forced converts horrified Hindus

  • 70% of mansabdars(officials who had land grants) under Akbar, were Muslim soldiers born outside of India, 15% Hindus from the N (Rajputs)

  • Akbar strived for social harmony, not just territory/revenues; married a Hindu Rajput princess and welcomed her family to court

Hindus and muslims continued
Hindus And Muslims continued

  • Akbar ruled that in legal disputes between 2 Hindus, dispute would be decided by village customs or Hindu law; Muslims followed Shari’a law

  • 1579 - Akbar made himself last resort in legal court ; also made himself center of “Divine Faith” incorporated Muslim/Hindu/Zoroastrian/Sikh/Christian ideas

  • Akbar’s court culture lasted until his zealous great-grandson Aurangzeb

  • Mughal/Rajput depictions of people in portraits, frowned upon by Muslims

  • Lead painters were Hindu; Persian poetry favored at court, language Urdu

  • Most Muslim converts occurred in Indus River valley

  • Introduction of Sikhism in Punjab (NW India)

  • Nanak (1469-1539) 1st guru; stressed mediation and combined Muslim/Hindu beliefs; no caste system

  • Auranzeb had 9th guru beheaded in 1675 for refusing to convert to Islam

  • 10th guru reorganized followers “the army of the pure” for revenge

Central decay and regional challenges 1707 1761
Central Decay and Regional challenges 1707-1761

  • Mughal power fell after death of Aurangzeb in 1707; land grant system one cause of this; decline of imperial authority

  • Aurangzeb failed to integrate new Mughal territories into the imperial structure and regional military leaders challenged Mughal supremacy

  • The Marathas took territory across India’s middle, and Sikhs, Hindu Rajputs, and Muslim Afghans exerted pressure from the NW

  • 1739 Nadir Shah sacked Delhi, and took the crown jewels

  • 1723 Nizam al-Mulk, the vizier of the sultan, gave up on the central government and established independent state at Hyderabad in E. Deccan

  • Other officials (nawabs) became independent in Bengal/Oudh in NE, and Marathas W, NW Afghans set up an independent kingdom

  • Joseph Francois Dupleix took over stronghold of Pondicherry in 1741 and captured the English trading center of Madras, after 1754 – open for British colonization