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USING MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION TO PROMOTE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Alan C. Lacy, Senior Associate Dean College of Applied Science and Technology Illinois State University. Relationship Between Physical Activity and Physical Fitness.
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USING MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION TO PROMOTE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Alan C. Lacy, Senior Associate Dean College of Applied Science and Technology Illinois State University
Relationship Between Physical Activity and Physical Fitness Physical activity is body movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and substantially increases energy expenditure. Physical fitness is the product of physical activity that includes sets of attributes that people have or achieve relating to their ability to perform physical activity. (USDHHS, 1996)
Process Versus Product • Process of physical activity • Product of physical fitness • Skill related physical fitness • Health related physical fitness • Product of skill proficiency
Plan the Work, Work the Plan • Construction projects • Travel plans • Writing projects • Teaching
Planning the Work • Formulate program standards. • Plan the curriculum. • Develop unit outcomes and performance-based objectives.
NASPE Standards* Standard 1: Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities. Standard 2: Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities. *From Moving into the Future: National Physical Education Standards (2nd ed.) (2004) published by National Association for Sport and Physical Education.
NASPE Standards* (con.) Standard 3: Participates regularly in physical activity. Standard 4: Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness. *From Moving into the Future: National Physical Education Standards (2nd ed.) (2004) published by National Association for Sport and Physical Education.
NASPE Standards* (con.) Standard 5: Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings. Standard 6: Values physical activity for health, enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and and/or social interaction. *From Moving into the Future: National Physical Education Standards (2nd ed.) (2004) published by National Association for Sport and Physical Education.
Promoting Physical Activity in Each Learning Domain • PSYCHOMOTOR • Standard 1 • COGNITIVE • Standard 2 • HEALTH-RELATED PHYSICAL FITNESS • Standards 3 and 4 • AFFECTIVE • Standards 5 and 6
Working the Plan • Effectively deliver the program. • Teach to the standards. • Promote activity in every domain. • Use appropriate assessments.
Psychomotor Domain (1) • Teach skills to encourage “approach tendency” to physical activity. • Offer curricular offerings in which students can feel successful. • Utilize variety of assessments to provide feedback and motivation. • Avoid overemphasis on competition.
Health-Related Physical Fitness Domain (3, 4) • Emphasis on Process of Activity • Use criterion-referenced standards • Avoid concluding low fitness scores mean that a student is inactive. • Work with students assess and encourage activity patterns outside of school • Employ self-testing procedures in addition to more formal testing
Cognitive Domain (2) • Encourage clear understanding of relationship of health fitness and physical activity. • Concepts of health fitness • Personal workout plans • Rules and strategies of sports • Techniques of various activities
Affective Domain (5, 6) • Create appropriate atmosphere for learning and enjoyment in class. • Consider student input on activities. • Encourage students to express feelings about various activities. • Recognize linkage of meeting affective goals with success in other domains.
Assessment Guidelines • Base evaluation on clearly defined educational objectives. • Integrate assessment activities into the instructional process • Use fitness scores to help students set personal goals and check progress.
Assessment Guidelines (con.) • Use results of assessment to inform curricular and pedagogical decisions. • Base grading on student achievement of objectives. • Employ continuous, formative assessment. • Use wide variety of assessment techniques.
Wide Variety of Assessments • Skills tests • Homework • Written tests • Fitnessgram • Activitygram • HR monitors • Pedometers • Activity logs • Peer evaluations • Teacher observation • Self evaluations • Interest inventories • Attitudinal surveys • Journals • Group projects • Video Analysis
Case Study – Middle School* • Daily 55-minute classes • 35 coed students • Curriculum has 3-week units • Small weight room, gym, ample field space • 4 physical education instructors *From Lacy, Alan. (2011) Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Exercise Science. Sixth Edition. San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings.
Conclusion • The overarching goal of promoting physically active lifestyles should permeate everything that is taught in physical education. • Aligning program standards, curricular plans, pedagogical decisions, and assessment activities is crucial to meeting this goal.