Stimulants By: Emily Ploom and Stacy Ploom Period 6 Advanced Psychology
Asubstance that raises levels of physiological or nervous activity in the body. Stimulants increase activity, interest, or enthusiasm in a specific field. • Stimulants can be taken orally in pill form, inhaled nasally, smoked, or injected. • Stimulants induce alertness, elevated mood, wakefulness, increased speech and motor activity and decrease appetite. What are stimulants?
Substances of abuse also affect the nucleus acumens by increasing the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which helps to regulate the feelings of pleasure. Dopamine plays an important role in the control of movement, cognition, motivation, and reward. High levels of dopamine in the body improve mood and increase body movement. However, too much dopamine may produce nervousness, irritability, aggressiveness, and paranoia that may cause schizophrenia, as well as the hallucinations and bizarre thoughts of schizophrenia. Too little dopamine in certain areas of the brain results in the tremors and paralysis of Parkinson's disease. How Do stimulants affect the brain?
Effects when taken: • Upset stomach • Increased blood pressure • Increased heart rate • Increased respiration • Vomiting • Sweating • Cramps Withdrawal Effects: • Fatigue • Depression • Unusual sleeping patterns • Dizziness • Tremors • Flushed skin • Chest Pains • Headaches How do stimulants affect the body?
The psychological effects of stimulant include an increased sense of well-being, euphoria, excitement, heightened alertness, and increases in motor activity. Stimulants also reduce food intake, reduce sleep time, and may increase socialization activities. Stimulants may also enhance performance of certain types of psychomotor tasks. • High doses of stimulants can result in restlessness and agitation, and excessive doses may produce stereotypic behaviors. Chronic psychological effects of stimulant use include various psychiatric disorders such as psychosis, paranoia, and suicidal tendencies. Psychological Effects of Stimulants
Legal Stimulants • Amphetamines • Ephedrine • Caffeine • Nicotine Illegal Stimulants • Methamphetamines • Cocaine Types of Stimulants
Physical effects include: • Increased heart rate • Increased blood pressure • Increased body temperature • Increased rate of breathing • Increased appetite • Behavioral effects include: • Temporary hyperactivity • Sense of increased energy • Psychological effects: • Sense of euphoria • Paranoia Examples: • Adderall • Dexedrine • ProCentra • Vyvanse Amphetamines
This drug is marketed as herbal supplement and as an asthma reliever. It lowers blood pressure and it is a nasal congestion treatment Side Effects: • Dizziness • Headache • Nausea • Nervousness • Tremor • Loss of Appetite • Restlessness Ephedrine • Examples: • Bronkaid • Ephedrine Plus • Hydroxycut
Caffeine stimulates the body’s central nervous system to make the muscles relax. • Side Effects: • Feeling more alert and active • Increased heart rate • Shakiness and jitters • Anxiety • Panic Attack • Possibility of seizure • Dehydration • Osteoporosis • Infertility • Insomnia Examples of Caffeine • Coffee • Tea • Chocolate Video Clip- http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hbuCmO8Bwhs Caffeine
Nicotine is a remarkably addictive drug Side Effects: • Decreases the appetite • Boosts mood and may even relieve minor depression. • Creates more saliva and phlegm. • Increases heart rate by around 10 to 20 beats per minute. • May cause sweating, nausea, and diarrhea. Examples: • Tobacco • Cigarettes Nicotine
They are strong drug stimulants and are manufactured illegally. They are usually bought as OTC medications. They occur as powders or crystals that are dissolved in alcohol or water before being injected. Methamphetamines • Side Effects: • Increased heart rate • Increased blood pressure • Increased body temperature • Increased rate of breathing • Dilated pupils • Tremors • Feelings of euphoria • Increased nervousness • Irritability • Paranoia • Violent and erratic behavior • Temporary hyperactivity • Increased energy
Cocaine is the most powerful central nervous system stimulant of natural origin. • Cocaine comes in two forms: • White crystalline powder • Off-white chunky material known as "crack" or "rock." Cocaine • Side Effects: • Physical effects include: • Dilated pupils • Increased blood pressure, temperature, and pulse rate • Psychological effects include: • Intense initial rush • Increased alertness • Restlessness and anxiety
References • Drug Info. (2003). Drug Facts. Retrieved from Drug Info website: http://www.druginfo.adf.org.au/drug-facts/amphetamines • Drug Info. (2012). Types of Stimulants. Retrieved from Types of Drugs website: http://typesofdrugs.org/types-of-stimulants/ • Jefferson County Health Department. (2008). What Is Methamphetamine? Retrieved from http://www.jcsd.org/Meth.htm • Kuhn, C., Swartzwelder, S., Wilson, W., Wilson, L. H., & Foster, J. (2003). the straight facts about the most used and abused drugs from alcohol to ecstasy. New York City, NY: Voice of Youth Advocates. • Palo Alto Medical Foundation. (2007). Stimulants. Retrieved from pamf website: http://www.pamf.org/teen/risk/drugs/stimulants/ • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US). (1999). Treatment Improvement Protocol: Vol. 33. Treatment for Stimulant Use Disorders. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64328/ Work Cited