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Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman. PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 7: Memory Karen Huffman, Palomar College. Lecture Overview. The Nature of Memory Forgetting Biological Bases of Memory Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory. The Nature of Memory.

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Psychology in action 8e by karen huffman l.jpg

Psychology in Action (8e)byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

Chapter 7: Memory

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Lecture Overview

  • The Nature of Memory

  • Forgetting

  • Biological Bases of Memory

  • Using Psychology to Improve Our Memory

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Nature of Memory

  • Memory: internal record or

    representation of some prior

    event or experience

  • Memory is also aconstructive process, in which we actively organize and shape information as it is processed, stored, and retrieved.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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1. Information Processing Approach: memory is a process analogous to a computer, which encodes, stores, and retrieves information

The Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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2. Parallel Distributed Processing Model: memory is distributed across a network of interconnected units that work simultaneously (in a parallel fashion) to process information

The Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models (Cont.)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Nature of Memory—Description of Four Memory Models (Continued)

3.Levels of Processing Approach: memory depends on the degree or depth of mental processing occurring when material is initially encountered

4.Traditional Three-Stage Memory Model: memory requires three different storage boxes to hold and process information for various lengths of time

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Diagram of Three-Stage Memory Model

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Nature of Memory—Description of Three Stage Memory Model

  • Sensory Memory: briefly preserves a relatively exact replica of sensory information

    • Sensory memory has a large capacity but information only lasts a few seconds.

    • Selected information is sent on to short-term memory.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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The Nature of Memory—Three Stage Memory Model (Cont.)

  • Short-Term Memory (STM): temporarily stores sensory information and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory (LTM)

  • STM can hold 5-9 items for about 30 seconds before they are forgotten.

  • STM capacity can be increased with chunking. STM duration improves withmaintenance rehearsal.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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  • STM, also called working memory, is much more than just a passive, temporary holding area.

  • Three parts of working memory:

  • visuospatial sketchpad

  • central executive

  • phonological loop

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Long-Term Memory (LTM): relatively permanent memory storage with a virtually limitless capacity

The Nature of Memory—Three Stage Memory Model (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Types of Long-Term Memories

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Improving Long-Term Memory (LTM)

  • LTM can be improved with:

    • Organization (Flowchart)

    • Elaborative Rehearsal

      • Linking to existing memories

    • Retrieval Cues

      • Recognition (M/C exam)

      • Recall (Essay exam)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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An Example of Using Hierarchies as an Organizational Tool

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Research shows people are better at recognizing photos of previous high school classmates than recalling their names.

An Example of Recognition Vs. Recall

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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A Test for Recall: Can You Write Down previous high school classmates than recalling their names. the Names of Santa’s Nine Reindeer?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


Now try recognizing the names need help answers appear in appendix b l.jpg

A) Rudolph previous high school classmates than recalling their names.

B) Dancer

C) Cupid

D) Lancer

E) Comet

F) Vixen

G) Blitzen

H) Crasher

I) Donner

J) Prancer

K) Sunder

L) Thunder

M) Dasher

N) Donder

Now Try Recognizing the Names (Need Help? Answers Appear in Appendix B)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Forgetting: How Quickly Do We Forget? previous high school classmates than recalling their names.

  • Ebbinghaus found:

    • forgetting occurs most rapidly immediately after learning.

    • relearning takes less time than initial learning.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Decay previous high school classmates than recalling their names.

Interference

Motivated Forgetting

Encoding Failure

Retrieval Failure

Why Do We Forget? Five Key Theories

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Five Theories of Forgetting (Continued) previous high school classmates than recalling their names.

1. Decay Theory:

memory degrades with time

2. Interference Theory: one memory competes (interferes) with another

  • RetroactiveInterference (new information interferes with old)

  • Proactive Interference (old information interferes with new)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Two Forms of Interference previous high school classmates than recalling their names.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Five Theories of Forgetting (Continued) previous high school classmates than recalling their names.

3.Motivated Forgetting: motivation to forget unpleasant, painful, threatening, or embarrassing memories

4. Encoding Failure: information in STM is not encoded in LTM

5. Retrieval Failure: memories stored in LTM are momentarily inaccessible (tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Serial Position Effect previous high school classmates than recalling their names. : remembering material at the beginning and end of the list better than material in the middle

Overcoming Problems with Forgetting

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Overcoming Problems with Forgetting previous high school classmates than recalling their names. (Continued)

  • Source Amnesia: forgetting the true source of a memory

  • Sleeper Effect: information from an unreliable source, which was initially discounted, later gains credibility because source is forgotten

  • Spacing of Practice: distributed practice is better than massed practice

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Biological Bases of Memory previous high school classmates than recalling their names.

  • Biological changes in neurons facilitate memory through long-term potentiation (LTP),which happens in at least two ways:

  • repeated stimulation of a synapse strengthens the synapse, and

  • neuron’s ability to release its neurotransmitters is increased or decreased.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


Biological bases of memory continued l.jpg

Hormones previous high school classmates than recalling their names.

also affect memory (e.g., flashbulb memories--vivid and lasting images are associated with surprising or strongly emotional events).

Biological Bases of Memory (Continued)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Memory tends to be localized and distributed previous high school classmates than recalling their names. throughout the brain--not just the cortex.

Where Are Memories Located?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Amnesia: previous high school classmates than recalling their names. memory loss from brain injury or trauma

Retrograde amnesia: old memories lost

Anterograde amnesia: new memories lost

Biology and Memory Loss: Injury and Disease

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Biology and Memory Loss: previous high school classmates than recalling their names. Injury and Disease (Continued)

  • Alzheimer’s Disease (AD): progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Memory and the Criminal Justice System previous high school classmates than recalling their names.

  • Two memory problems with profound legal implications:

  • Eyewitness Testimony--

    very persuasive but can be flawed

  • Repressed Memories—

    considerabledebate as to whether recovered memories are accurate or repressed

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Using Psychology to Improve previous high school classmates than recalling their names. Our Memory

  • Why do we distort our memories?

    • Need to maintain logic and consistency.

    • Need to shape and construct our memories because it is more efficient to do so.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Pause and Reflect: previous high school classmates than recalling their names. Why Study Psychology?

  • Psychological research conducts basic research, which helps us describe and understand our own and others’ memory processes. This basic research also leads to applied research that shows us how to improve our sensory, short-term, and long-term memory.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Using Psychology to Improve previous high school classmates than recalling their names. Our Memory (Continued)

  • Eight Tips for Memory Improvement:

    1.Pay attention and reduce interference

    2. Use rehearsal techniques

    3. Organization

    4. Counteract serial position effect

    5. Time management

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Using Psychology to Improve previous high school classmates than recalling their names. Our Memory (Continued)

6. Use encoding specificity principle (recreate the original learning conditions)

7. Employ self-monitoring and overlearning

8. Use mnemonic devices: method of loci (phys.places), peg-word (hang & associate), substitute word (word parts), word associations (first letters make a new word)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)


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Psychology in Action (8e) previous high school classmates than recalling their names. byKaren Huffman

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

End of

Chapter 7: Memory

Karen Huffman, Palomar College

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)