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Predicting the Product in Single Replacement Reactions. Using the Activity Series. Introduction. In a single replacement reaction, the metal ion in a salt solution is replaced by another metal. AX( aq ) + B( s ) → BX( aq ) + A( s ) For example:

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introduction
Introduction
  • In a single replacement reaction, the metal ion in a salt solution is replaced by another metal.
  • AX(aq) + B(s) → BX(aq) + A(s)
  • For example:
  • Adding magnesium metal to a solution of silver chloride causes the magnesium to dissolve and the silver to precipitate out.
  • 2 AgNO3(aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)
introduction1
Introduction
  • In a single replacement reaction, the halide in a salt solution is replaced by another halide.
  • AX(aq) + Y2 → AY(aq) + X2
  • For example:
  • Adding chlorine gas to a solution of sodium bromide causes the chlorine to dissolve and the bromine to come out as a liquid.
  • 2 NaBr(aq) + Cl2(g) → 2 NaCl(aq) + Br2(l)
introduction2
Introduction
  • These kinds of reactions do not occur with all combinations of metals or halogens.
  • Some metals will replace some other metal ions in solution.
  • Some halogens will replace some other halogen ions in solution.
  • However, not every metal will replace every other metal ion in solution.
metals
Metals
  • The metals that replace other metal ions are said to be “more active” than the metals they replace.
  • For example, in the reaction
  • 2 AgNO3(aq) + Mg(s) → Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 Ag(s)
  • Mg is more active than Ag.
  • By examining a series of reactions with solid metals and dissolved metal ions, we can build a list of metals based on activity.
  • We call this the “Activity Series.”
metals1
Metals
  • The most active metal is Li followed by Rb, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Na.
  • Each of these metals react with cold water and acids, replacing H.
  • Li(s) + H2O(l) → LiO(s) + H2(g)
  • 2 K(s) + HCl(aq) → 2 KCl(aq) + H2(g)
metals2
Metals
  • The most active metal is Li followed by Rb, K, Ba, Sr, Ca, and Na.
  • Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.
  • 2 Ba(s) + O2(g) → 2 BaO(s)
  • 2 Rb(s) + O2(g) → Rb2O(s)
metals3
Metals
  • The next most active set of metals is Mg followed by Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Cd.
  • Each of these metals react with H2O(g) and acids, replacing hydrogen.
  • Mg(s) + H2O(g) → MgO(s) + H2(g)
  • Zn(s) + 2 HNO3(aq) → Zn(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)
metals4
Metals
  • The next most active set of metals is Mg followed by Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and Cd.
  • Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.
  • 2 Zn(s) + O2(g) → 2 ZnO(s)
  • 4 Fe(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Fe2O3(s)
metals5
Metals
  • The next most active set of metals is Co followed by Ni, Sn, and Pb.
  • None of these metals react with H2O (hot or cold).
  • They do react with acids, replacing hydrogen.
  • Co(s) + 2 HNO3(aq) → Co(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g)
  • Pb(s) + H2SO4(aq) → PbSO4(aq) + H2(g)
metals6
Metals
  • The next most active set of metals is Co followed by Ni, Sn, and Pb.
  • Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.
  • 2 Ni(s) + O2(g) → 2 NiO(s)
  • 2 Sn(s) + O2(g) → 2 SnO(s)
metals7
Metals
  • The next most active set of metals is Sb followed by Bi, Cu, and Hg.
  • None of these metals react with water or acids.
  • Each of these metals react with O2(g), forming oxides.
  • 4 Sb(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Sb2O3(s)
  • 2 Cu(s) + O2(g) → 2 CuO(s)
metals8
Metals
  • The least active set of metals is Ag followed by Pt and Au.
  • Each of these metals are fairly unreactive.
  • None of these metals react with water or acids.
  • None of these metals react directly with O2(g) to form oxides.
    • They will form oxides, but only indirectly.
metals9
Metals
  • The Activity Series:

most active

increasing activity

increasing activity

increasing activity

increasing activity

increasing activity

least active

halogens
Halogens
  • The most active halogen is F2 followed by Cl2, Br2, and I2.
  • Each of these halogens are reactive with a wide variety of elements and compounds.
  • The activity series just shows which is most reactive and least reactive.
halogens1
Halogens

most active

  • The Activity Series:
  • F2
  • Cl2
  • Br2
  • I2

increasing activity

least active

using the activity series
Using the Activity Series
  • The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.
  • First, we look at the ions in a solution.
  • Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.
    • If the metal is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the metal ion in solution precipitates out.
    • If the metal is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.
using the activity series1
Using the Activity Series
  • The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.
  • First, we look at the ions in a solution.
  • Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.
    • If the halogen is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the halide ion in solution comes out as a solid, liquid, or gas.
    • If the halogen is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.
using the activity series2
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.
using the activity series3
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.
using the activity series4
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.
using the activity series5
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.

Zn is more active than Cu.

using the activity series6
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.

Zn is more active than Cu.

Zn(s) will replace Cu2+(aq).

using the activity series7
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put zinc metal in a solution of copper(II) sulfate.
  • We predict that the solid zinc will dissolve in the solution (forming Zn2+ ions) and copper metal will precipitate out.
  • Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
using the activity series8
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
using the activity series9
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
using the activity series10
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
using the activity series11
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Mg is more active than Fe.

using the activity series12
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Mg is more active than Fe.

Mg(s) will replace Fe3+(aq).

using the activity series13
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put magnesium metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
  • We predict that the solid magnesium will dissolve in the solution (forming Mg2+ ions) and iron metal will precipitate out.
  • 3 Mg(s) + 2 FeCl3(aq) → 3 MgCl2(aq) + 2 Fe(s)
using the activity series14
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
using the activity series15
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
using the activity series16
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
using the activity series17
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Fe is more active than Cu.

using the activity series18
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.

Fe is more active than Cu.

Cu(s) will not replace Fe3+(aq).

using the activity series19
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We put copper metal in a solution of iron(III) chloride.
  • We predict that there will be no reaction.
  • Cu(s) + FeCl3(aq) → no reaction
using the activity series20
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.
using the activity series21
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.
using the activity series22
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.
using the activity series23
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.

Cl2 is more active than I2.

using the activity series24
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.

Cl2 is more active than I2.

Cl2 will replace I−.

using the activity series25
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) iodide.
  • We predict that the chlorine gas will go into solution (forming a Cl− ion) and the iodine will come out as a solid.
  • 3 Cl2(g) + 2 FeI3(aq) → 2 FeCl3(aq) + 3 I2(s)
using the activity series26
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.
using the activity series27
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.
using the activity series28
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.
using the activity series29
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.

F2 is more active than Cl2.

using the activity series30
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.

F2 is more active than Cl2.

Cl2will not replace F−.

using the activity series31
Using the Activity Series
  • For example:
  • We add chlorine gas to a solution of iron(III) fluoride.
  • We predict that there will be no reaction.
  • Cl2(g) + FeF3(aq) → no reaction
summary
Summary
  • The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.
  • First, we look at the ions in a solution.
  • Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.
    • If the metal is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the metal ion in solution precipitates out.
    • If the metal is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.
summary1
Summary
  • The activity series is used to predict whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur.
  • First, we look at the ions in a solution.
  • Next, we look at the metal or halogen being added to the solution.
    • If the halogen is higher up on the activity series list, then it goes into solution and the halide ion in solution comes out as a solid, liquid, or gas.
    • If the halogen is lower down on the activity series list, then there is no reaction.
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