BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

damian
bab 2 menyajikan data dalam tabel dan grafik n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik

play fullscreen
1 / 40
Download Presentation
BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik
218 Views
Download Presentation

BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalam Tabel dan Grafik

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. StatistikaBisnis BAB 2 Menyajikan Data dalamTabeldanGrafik

  2. TujuanKuliah PadaBabiniAndadiharapkanmempelajari: • Membanguntabeldangrafikuntuk data kategori (categorical data) • Membangun tabeldangrafikuntuk data numerik • Prinsip-prinsip yang tepatdalammenyajikan data

  3. Menyajikan Data • Data yang telahkitadapatbiasanyatidakmudahuntuklangsungdigunakandalampengambilankeputusan • Beberapatipepenyajian data dibutuhkan, yaitu: • Tabel • Grafik • Teknik-teknikmenyajikan data yang akandibahasdisiniadalah: • Bar charts and pie charts • Pareto diagram • Ordered array • Stem-and-leaf display • Frequency distributions, histograms and polygons • Cumulative distributions and ogives • Contingency tables • Scatter diagrams

  4. Tabeland GrafikuntukCategorical Data Categorical Data Graphing Data Tabulating Data Summary Table Bar Charts Pie Charts Pareto Diagram

  5. CONTOH • Kita melakukaninvestasisebagaiberikut: (in thousands $) Stocks 46.5, Bonds 32, CD 15.5, Savings 16 Buat summary table (tabelrekapitulasi) dangrafik bar/pie berdasarkanfrekuensisetiapkategori

  6. The Summary Table (TabelRekapitulasi) Rekapitulasi data berdasarkankategori Contoh: PortofolioInvestasi

  7. Bar and Pie Charts • Bar charts and Pie charts digunakanuntuk categorical data • Tinggidaridari bar atau size dariirisan pie memperlihatkanfrekuensidarisetiapkategori

  8. Bar Chart Example Current Investment Portfolio Investment Amount Percentage Type(in thousands $) (%) Stocks 46.5 42.27 Bonds 32.0 29.09 CD 15.5 14.09 Savings 16.0 14.55 Total110.0 100.0

  9. Pie Chart Example Current Investment Portfolio Investment Amount Percentage Type(in thousands $) (%) Stocks 46.5 42.27 Bonds 32.0 29.09 CD 15.5 14.09 Savings 16.0 14.55 Total110.0 100.0 Savings 15% Stocks 42% CD 14% Percentages are rounded to the nearest percent Bonds 29%

  10. Bar dan Pie Chart • Apaperbedaan bar dan pie chart? • Bar chart digunakanuntukmelihatkategori data mana yang terbesar/terkecil • Pie chart digunakanuntukmelihatproporsidarisetiapkategoridibandingkeseluruhan

  11. Pareto Diagram • Digunakanuntukmenggambarkan categorical data (nominal scale) • Pareto diagram digunakanpadagrafik yang sama bar chart denganmenambahkankumulatiffrekwensi • Untukmemisahkan “vital few” dari “trivial many”

  12. Pareto Diagram

  13. Pareto Diagram Example Current Investment Portfolio % invested in each category (bar graph) cumulative % invested (line graph)

  14. Organizing Numerical Data Numerical Data Frequency Distributions and Cumulative Distributions Ordered Array Stem-and-Leaf Display Histogram Polygon Ogive

  15. The Ordered Array mengurutkandatakedalamtingkatan: • Memperlihatkanjarak(min to max) • Menghasilkan signal tentangvariasi yang terdapatdalam data • Bisamengidentifikasipencilan/outliers (unusual observations) • tapiapabila data sangatbanyak, the ordered array susahuntukdigunakan

  16. The Ordered Array (continued) • Data mentah yang terkumpul: 24, 26, 24, 21, 27, 27, 30, 41, 32, 38 • Urutkan data memakaiteknikordered arraydari yang terkecilketerbesar: • Range:

  17. Stem-and-Leaf Diagram • Cara yang mudahuntukmelihatdistribusi data METODA: Memisahkan data menjadi yang termasukkedalamleading digits (the stem) and the trailing digits (theleaves)

  18. CONTOH Data in ordered array: 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41 • Here, use the 10’s digit for the stem unit: Stem Leaf 2 1 3 8 4 1 • 21 is shown as • 38 is shown as • 41 is shown as

  19. CONTOH (continued) Data in ordered array: 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41 • Completed stem-and-leaf diagram:

  20. Using other stem units • Using the 100’s digit as the stem: • Round off the 10’s digit to form the leaves • 613 would become 6 • 776 would become 7 • . . . • 1224 becomes 12 Stem Leaf

  21. Tabulating Numerical Data: Frequency Distributions Apakah frequency distribution? • Frequency distribution adalahlist atautabel… • Berisikangrup-grupdarikelas(class groupings)(range/jarakberadadiantara data) …

  22. MengapaMemakai Frequency Distribution? • Suatucarauntukmenyusun/summarize numerical data • Menyusun/meringkas data mentahmenjadisesuatu yang lebihbergunadanmudahdibaca... • Menyediakansuatudistribusi data yang bisadiinterpretasikan

  23. Class Intervals and Class Boundaries • Setiapgrupkelas/class grouping mempunyailebar/jarak yang sama • Menentukanlebardarisetiapkelasdengan • Biasanyasedikitnya 5 kelastapitidaklebihdari15 kelas (Cara menentukanjumlahkelas :K = 1 + 3,3 log N • Batas setiapkelastidakoverlap • Akhirilebarkelassehinggasemua data masukkedalamkelas

  24. Contoh Frequency Distribution Contoh:Suatumanufakturpenyekatansecaraacakmemilih 20 musimdingindanmencatattermperaturtertinggiperharisbb: 24, 35, 17, 21, 24, 37, 26, 46, 58, 30, 32, 13, 12, 38, 41, 43, 44, 27, 53, 27

  25. Contoh Frequency Distribution (continued) • Urutkan data:12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58 • Range: 58 - 12 = 46 • Pilihjumlahkelas: 5(biasanyaantara5 and 15) • Masukanlebarkelas/class interval (width): 10 (46/5 ) • Tentukanbatassetiapkelas(limits): 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 • Masukkannilaitengahsetiapkelas/class midpoints: 15, 25, 35, 45, 55 • Buattabeldistribusifrekwensi

  26. Contoh Frequency Distribution (continued) Data in ordered array: 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58 Relative Frequency Class Frequency Percentage 10 but less than 20 20 but less than 30 30 but less than 40 40 but less than 50 50 but less than 60 Total

  27. Tabulating Numerical Data: Cumulative Frequency Data in ordered array: 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58 Cumulative Frequency Cumulative Percentage Class Frequency Percentage 10 but less than 20 3 15 3 20 but less than 30 6 30 9 30 but less than 40 5 25 14 40 but less than 50 4 20 18 50 but less than 60 2 10 20 Total 20 100

  28. Graphing Numerical Data: The Histogram • Grafik yang dibuatdari frequency distribution disebuthistogram • Batas setiapkelasdanclass midpointsdiperlihatkanpadahorizontal axis • Vertical axis digunakanuntukmemperlihatkanfrequency, relative frequency, or percentage

  29. Histogram Class Midpoint Class Frequency 10 but less than 20 15 3 20 but less than 30 25 6 30 but less than 40 35 5 40 but less than 50 45 4 50 but less than 60 55 2 (No gaps between bars) Class Midpoints

  30. Graphing Numerical Data: The Frequency Polygon Class Midpoint Class Frequency 10 but less than 20 15 3 20 but less than 30 25 6 30 but less than 40 35 5 40 but less than 50 45 4 50 but less than 60 55 2 (In a percentage polygon the vertical axis would be defined to show the percentage of observations per class) Class Midpoints

  31. Graphing Cumulative Frequencies: The Ogive (Cumulative % Polygon) Lower class boundary Cumulative Percentage Class Less than 10 0 0 10 but less than 20 10 15 20 but less than 30 20 45 30 but less than 40 30 70 40 but less than 50 40 90 50 but less than 60 50 100 Class Boundaries (Not Midpoints)

  32. Bar chart dan Histogram Apaperbedaan bar chart dan histogram? • Bar chart dipakaiuntukbeberapacatergoricalvariabel • Histogram dipakaiuntuksatuvariabelnumerik • Polygon digunakanuntuklebihdarisatuvariabelnumerik

  33. Scatter Diagrams • Scatter Diagramsdigunakanuntukmengujikemungkinanadanyahubunganantaraduavariabelnumerik • The Scatter Diagram: • Satuvariabeldiukurdi vertical axis, danvariabel lain di horizontal axis

  34. Contoh Scatter Diagram

  35. Contoh Scatter Diagram (Time Series Plot

  36. Ringkasan • Apaaja yang dipelajaridibabini: • Bar charts, pie charts, and Pareto diagrams • Ordered array and stem-and-leaf display • Frequency distributions, histograms and polygons • Cumulative distributions and ogives • Contingency tables and side-by-side bar charts • Scatter diagrams and time series plots

  37. SOAL • Data berikutmewakilibiayalistrikselamaJuli 2006 untuksebuahsampelacakdari 30 kamarapartemendikotabesar: 96 171 202 178 147 102 153 197 127 82 157 185 90 116 172 111 148 213 130 165 141 149 206 175 123 128 144 168 109 167 a. Bangunsebuahfrekwensidanpersentasedistribusi (Sekaliandengancummulativepercentagenya)

  38. SOAL b. Bangun histogram dan percentage polygon c. Bangungrafikcummulative polygon distribution d. Padabulanapaajabiayalistrikterkonsentrasi?

  39. Bab 3 • Central tedency • Mean • Median • Mode • Geometric mean

  40. TerimaKasih