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HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICTS - Althoff. LEC- 02. Chapters 2 & 3. Innovation & Fear. History of ADC Threats to Human Safety. Necessary “ingredients” for wildlife damage to occur:. Wildlife. Resource. Damage. Victim. The early days….

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History of adc threats to human safety



Chapters 2 & 3

Innovation & Fear

History of ADC

Threats to Human Safety

The early days
The early days….

  • Prehistoric hunters were probably so efficient that they often ___________ the wildlife populations they hunted

  • Hunter-gather types probably _______________ too far from the settlement/encampment…and wildlife probably kept its distance

  • Early forms of “wildlife” management was evident by the burning vegetation to both a) produce ______ game and b) to ______________ animals for easier hunting

For agrarian societies
For agrarian societies….

  • Going back ~ 10,000 – 15,000 years ago

  • Two negative impacts posed by wildlife: a) during the _________________ b) to stored ______________________

  • Oral tradition indicates those people employed several methods to reduce wildlife damage: a) ____________ b) ________ c) ________



Rodents early on were pests
Rodents, early on, were pests…

  • Most notably, to _____________

  • Early efforts were to kill ______________

  • Known by 4,000 to 5,000 years ago that Egyptians used _______ to reduce mice numbers….and during same time period Chinese know to have made _______ _____________…and inhabitants of Indus River Valley used ________________ designed to strangle animals.


Early crop fields were small
Early crop fields were small….

  • Because everything done by _________

  • Small crops fields could be wiped out quickly by wildlife

  • Some Native Americans used tall platforms positioned in mature corn fields, “manned” by children from dawn to dusk, whose job it was to ____________ at birds to scare them away

  • Old World (Europe) always used the practice of having children deter bird damage to crops

Early on herders had challenges too
Early on, herders had challenges, too….

  • Captive animals were tempting targets for ________predators…especially when food was scarce: a) winter b) dry spells

  • Becoming effective at keeping large predators away was a key for some living a rural existence, thus allowing many to ________________ from a dependency on hunting to one of herding

Human life was threatened
Human life was threatened….

  • In the line of duty, shepherds tried to ___________ attacks from lions, tigers, and bears

  • Biblical accounts describe a) sheep and goat herders defending herds against large predators b) some (i.e., herders) were undoubtedly killed by large predators c) shepherds (i.e., David) killing both lions and bears…with a _______. Samson was credited with killing a young lion with his bare hands

Medieval europe
Medieval Europe….

  • Use of ________________ to control rodents: “paste of honey, copperas, and ground glass” (FeSO4 ) “powdered mercuric chloride added to paste made from sweet butter, oatmeal, apple, pulp, flour, and sugar”

  • Common names of some plants used to control damage very “suggestive”: ____________ = kill wolves, foxes, and rodents ____________ = for rats, contains arsenic

Medieval europe con t
Medieval Europe….con’t

  • Laws actually passed to “kill” offending wildlife a) Scotland _____ – kill rooks b) England _____ – ordering nets be set to capture jackdaws, crows, and rooks….heavy fine for non-compliance c) England _____ – another act ordering church wardens to pay bounties for several species of birds and mammals listed as vermin

  • Many ingenious traps developed to catch mice and rats

Medieval-era mouse and rat traps

from Mascall’s book published in 1590, p21 in Conover, Fig. 2.2

Traps from pre 1590
Traps from pre-1590

  • Mill to take mice – pinwheel that placed on edge of table over a bucket of water. Vanes baited. Mouse reached for bait, pinwheel moved, mouse fell in bucket and drown

  • Fall for rats – dead fall with heavy block that fell when treadle below released string attached to block

  • Following trap – powered by both gravity and twisted-cord spring

  • Dragin trap – early “snap trap”. Had metal teeth with twisted rope that acted as spring. Looked like dragon’s mouth…hence name

  • Bow Trappe for rats – like dragin trap but with bow

  • Boxe trap – guillotine-type, spring-powered rod used

Psychology warfare medieval times
Psychology warfare…. Medieval times

  • _________________– left notes, print-side up. Request was to vacate the premises

  • ______ – if letter writing/warnings didn’t work (and why would they?), then some captured rodents were tortured rather than killed…then released to warn other.

  • Magical potions , spells cast, and rhymes written, music even used (Pied Piper example…luring rats to their death)

Colonial america 1620 1776
Colonial America 1620 - 1776

  • Initially, all wildlife looked at as _________. Europe at the time was “more orderly, more tame” with a patchwork of fields, pastures, and woods

    Plymouth Bay colony leader William Bradford wrote… the area was “a hideous and desolate wilderness, full of wild beasts and wild men.”

  • ________________________________ – to counter, the mindset was to “subdue, conquer, or vanquish” perceived threats to their existence/settlement. Goal: _______! Thus, war was essentially declared on wildlife

Colonial america 1620 1776 con t
Colonial America 1620 – 1776…con’t

  • ____________ were exceptionally targeted as they threatened livestock

  • Early on, there were bounties paid for dead wolves, cougars and other predators

  • One of the first laws in New Haven colony was to establish bounty on wolves and foxes…with the intent of not just reducing predator populations but to ________________ them

  • Bounties ________ even higher when few wolves left in an area with the expressed intent of eliminating them

  • In 1600s, ___________________ were main means of predator control. Even some habitat management… swamps were drained

Colonial america 1620 1776 con t1
Colonial America 1620 – 1776…con’t

  • Birds, especially “starlings and red-winged blackbirds” also threatened colonists’ food supplies. Note: “starlings” likely not introduced to NA successfully until _________ in New York city by _____________ fan

  • In 1648, New Haven offered 10 shillings for every 1,000 blackbirds killed

  • Colonial farmers targeted _________________ because of large flocks foraging in the grain crops

  • Some recognition, though, that some wildlife was ____: beaver and deer…with beaver pelts used a legal tender.

Wildlife management in u s 1776 1880
Wildlife Management in U.S. 1776 - 1880

  • Still attitude to tame the wild

  • Wildlife dual function: 1) source of food and/or revenue 2) obstacle or hindrance to be eliminated

  • Westward push dominated by desire for beaver pelts, as beaver popn in eastern U.S. greatly reduced. So, trappers first…then farmers

  • Farmers’ perception of wildlife was still generally “bad”. Coyotes along with wolves, cougars, and grizzly bears all viewed as “___________________________.”

  • Think post-Civil War era….aim to eliminate Native Americans was sought by __________________. Unfortunately, that effort was pretty successful

Changing views in later part of 1800 s
Changing views in later part of 1800’s

  • Transition from conquering the new ‘geographic’ frontier to advent of the industrial revolution. Americans reflected on the “cost” of the accomplishment of taming the country: a) ____________________ (i.e., landscape) b) ____________________

  • Recognition that the wildlife resources was ______ inexhaustible

  • Some state legislature’s debated enacting laws to protect certain species of wildlife (TX –bison, OH –p. pigeons)

  • It was thought it was “__________” to be outdoors, be involved in outdoor recreation

  • ________________ became popular

Sport hunting early efforts resulted in
Sport hunting: early efforts resulted in…

  • Move to hunt “_________” with only “sporting methods”

  • Also, call (Henry William Herbert…AKA Frank Forester) to treat dogs and horses humanely….to do otherwise was cruel

  • Among those picking up on the ‘____________’ theme was Theodore Roosevelt…a member of one of the early sportsmen’s clubs. Of course, Teddy became president evidently is well documented

  • Federal gov’t initiated some important policy changes….___________________________ established

  • Federal gov’t established in ______ the ____________ ______________________________

Expanded consciousness about wildlife
Expanded consciousness about wildlife….

  • In America, during the turn of the century didn’t automatically wipe away the “good” vs. “bad” view of wildlife in general…with ‘good’ being those hunted for sport and ‘bad’ being anything else

  • Gov’t policy was still _________…”good” wildlife and “bad’ wildlife

  • New emerging philosophy among some…think Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson: nature and wilderness possessed special values of beauty and spiritualism

  • But, things changed again some with World Wars I and II

World wars i and ii
World Wars I and II

  • Shift in U.S. from predominately emphasis on agriculture production (and agriculture labor) to war production (both manufacturing and sending people off to fight the wars).

  • Concern for livestock waned, concern for wildlife ______

  • As a result, wildlife damage becomes “more important during __________ difficult times” than when life is good

  • ____________, Congress allocated $125,000 to deal with predatory animals—this marked the first time the federal gov’t hired professionals to kill predators. And, there was little opposition to take this approach

Key ww ii battle impacted by wildlife damage
Key WW-II battle impacted by wildlife damage

  • Conover 2002:31 sidebar 2.5

  • Hitler ordered one of his major Panzer (tank) corps to break through a Russian encirclement of his 6th Army’.

  • The relief effort failed because many of the tanks had been rendered inoperable prior to the battle because _____ had eaten through the ______________________.

  • The result: that portion of the German army—13 infantry divisions, 3 panzer divisions, 3 motorized divisions, and 1 anti-aircraft division—surrendered. A loss of 250,000 troops and all their equipment.

A theme repeated
A theme repeated….

  • “The pattern of sacrificing wildlife interests for ________ ones is repeated across time and throughout the world” (Conover 2002:31)

  • Individual human survival almost always placed over environmental protection

  • Often, wildlife is viewed as a _______…and thus wealthy nations are more likely to consider protecting the environment than poor ones…or during poor times

Suggest you read
Suggest you read…

  • Conover (2002:31-33) to get a summary of perspective of wildlife management in _______ America that highlights: a) era of prosperity for Americans b) impact of outdoor recreation…including the large of hunters and fisherman c) impact of TV d) advent of powerful non-governmental conservation-oriented organizations e) gaining of an ‘environmental conscious f) establishment of urban wildlife populations g) etc.

History of usda wildlife services program conover 2002 29 30 sidebar 2 4
History of USDA & Wildlife Services Program(Conover 2002: 29-30 sidebar 2.4)

  • As noted, US gov’t (i.e., Feds) first got into wildlife damage “business” in _____ with establishment of USDA branch of Economic Ornithology and Mammalogy…although initially the “mammalogy part was not included)

  • Initial efforts were to ________ farmers….

  • Then ____________ into the problems followed….

  • Finally, by _____________ of ADC techniques

  • In _____, eradication methods lab was formed…in Albuquerque, NM

Fed adc agency changes in location name
Fed ADC agency changes in location & name

  • In ______, Fed agency moved to Denver and renamed the Denver Wildlife Research Center

  • In the ______, the center was moved to Fort Collins, CO and given the name National Wildlife Research Center

  • In ______, President Franklin Roosevelt transferred what was essentially WS (technically Bureau of Biological Survey) from USDA to USFWS to consolidate all wildlife- related activities in one department. It was then known as ADC

Protests from outside federal gov t but programs moved ahead
Protests from outside Federal gov’t…but programs moved ahead

  • In _____, Fed agency responsible for “predator and rodent control” was earmarked for $1 million.

  • The high amount ($1 million for the times) and the approach (largely “eradicate” by any means) resulted in _________ from the ___________________________

  • But, supporters of the Fed ADC agenda rallied for more political support (clearly influenced by ‘strong voices’ of western ranchers) passed the ____________________ ______________…. a) gave Feds authority to conduct ADC activities b) gave Feds authority to enter into cooperative agreements with state and local governments

Fed adc agency changes in name con t
Fed ADC agency changes in name…con’t ahead

  • During the 40s, 50s, and 60s—especially the 60s, ADC came under close scrutiny as part of the environmental awareness movement because of the extensive use of poisons, among other methods. A special committee was formed and resulted in the ___________________ (lead by A. Starker Leopold, Aldo’s son). It was essentially to look at national parks but came up with a series of recommendations (see next slide) that were accepted as a guidepost. A) ADC program was modified B) Jack Berryman names new chief

Leopold report 1963 6 adc related recommendations
Leopold Report 1963….6 ADC-related recommendations ahead

  • Create an advisory board to ADC

  • Reassess ADC program goals

  • Revise ADC’s guidelines for methods and assessment

  • Increase research efforts

  • Obtain legal control of use of certain _____________

  • Change the organization’s name.

  • …the name change was not made then, however!

Another key report report
Another key report… ahead_______ Report

  • ______ - Stanley Cain chair

  • Critical of use of poisons on the grounds that they were a) inhumane as used most times b) nonselective (i.e., non-target species suffered)

  • Recommended more use of leg-hold traps over poisons

    Results that followed based on Cain Report…

  • President Nixon signed an executive order, _____, banning use of toxicants for predator control by federal __________ on federal ___________

  • President Ford amended the ban by allowing use of ______________ in M-44s in the mid-1970s

  • President Reagan ____________ Nixon’s e.o. and Ford’s amendment in the early 1980s

One more department change and one more name change
One more department change and aheadone more name change….

  • During the ______, agricultural stakeholders (think ranchers, farmers and industries catering to them) felt the ADC as housed within the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was … a) NOT _________________ b) NOT getting a “____” shake – in principle or reality

  • In _____, Congress legislated that all ADC programs be moved back to the ______

  • In ______, the federal ADC program was officially changed to ___________________ (WS)

Threats to human safety
Threats to Human Safety ahead

  • Truly, only a _____fraction of human-wildlife encounters result in human injury or death

  • That said, in this age of 30-second sound bites and video/media coverage, single events can generate lots of attention and emotion

Threats to human safety1
Threats to Human Safety ahead

  • Three ways people are injured or killed from human- wildlife conflicts: 1) bitten, clawed, gored, or attacked by wildlife 2) injured or killed when there is a collision of a vehicle (auto or plane) with wildlife 3) infected with a disease or parasite passed from a wildlife species

Why do animals attack people
Why Do Animals Attack People? ahead

  • _________________ – when the person is viewed as prey. Usually only happens when person is smaller than the predator…size matters. Sometimes smaller predators attack larger prey (i.e., human) by accident—they misjudge their size

  • _______________– animal likely feels cornered or trapped and response with attempt to defend itself. Think bison (horns), coyotes (bite), cats (claws), porcupines (quills)

  • ____________________– although this behavior is usually directed at conspecifics, it does sometimes carry over for some species to other species…including humans. Ex. would be Canada geese, mute swans, and avocets protecting a nest

How frequent are attacks conover 2002 42 tables 3 1 3 2

Per year ahead

How Frequent Are Attacks?(Conover 2002:42 Tables 3.1 & 3.2)



  • Rodents: ? 27,000 ?

  • Ven. Snakes ? 8,000 9-15

  • Skunks 1971-1972 113 --

  • Sharks 1990-1999 287 5

  • Black bears 1960-1980 25 0.3

  • Coyotes LA 1975-1981 1.3 0.2

  • Coyotes YNP 1960-1988 0.1 0.0

  • Cougars US 1890-1990 0.2 0.05

  • Bison YNP 1978-1993 3.7 0.1

Characteristics age sex of people injured by predators in north america conover 2002 47 tables 3 4
Characteristics (Age & Sex) of People Injured by aheadPredators in North America ?(Conover 2002:47 Tables 3.4)

  • Examine Table 3.4 from Conover

  • What are the trends? Males or females more likely to be attacked? Males or females more likely to be killed?

    Children <10 more or less likely to be attacked than those >20?

    Who more likely to suffer fatal attacks?

Number of humans attacked by alligators, cougars, and bears in the U.S. during recent decades (Conover 2002:52 Fig. 3.6)

Why the recent increase in wildlife attacks on humans in north america
Why the Recent Increase in Wildlife Attacks on Humans in North America?

  • Attacks by alligators, cougars, bears, coyotes, and probably bison and moose have increased in recent decades

  • All are relatively _________ (except for coyote)

  • All have exhibited a population __________ from the early 1900s (except perhaps moose)

  • Human populations have increased AND humans are spending more time in _________ areas --note: backcountry visitor to YNP is 38 times more likely to be injured by a bear than a “normal” visitor. For Glacier NP, the figure is 84 times.

  • Some have ______________ to humans…in urban settings

But why aren t more humans attacked
But why aren’t more humans attacked? North America?

  • Speculation –Conover: historic memory passed on from mothers (of bears, cougars, etc.) to their offspring about how dangerous humans are. Conover also thinks this will change (i.e., increased number of attacks) as lack of interest by hunters or increased passage of laws protecting large predators.

  • Some evidence – erect posture of humans perceived by large predators suggest they (humans) are more formidable, so the predators pass. There is some evidence that cougar attacks are more common on people leaning over or squatting than when standing tall.

Human injuries fatalities from ungulate automobile collisions
Human Injuries & Fatalities from North America?Ungulate – Automobile Collisions

  • Conover (in ______): estimated number of deer-vehicle collisions in U.S. totaled ____________.

    What is it more recently? … have an estimate next week for Ohio or the nation… ________________

  • Decker et al. 1990 & Romin 1994: only about ____ of deer-vehicle collisions are reported, the actual number in the U.S. annually is probably twice that figure (for 1995) above). Thus, the above statistic grossly underestimates the damage at least to property

Bird collisions with civilian aircraft
Bird Collisions with Civilian Aircraft North America?

  • In _____, there were _______ reported bird strikes by civilian aircraft in the US.

    What is it more recently? … have an estimate next week for the US… ________________

  • Military aircraft are more vulnerable to bird strikes than commercial aircraft. Why? 1) 2) other…?