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A Bluetooth Overview

A Bluetooth Overview

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A Bluetooth Overview

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  1. A Bluetooth Overview by N.G.Alexiou School of Computing & Mathematics Sciences Liverpool John Moores University

  2. A Bluetooth Overview • What is Bluetooth? • Bluetooth Development • Bluetooth Administrative Structure • Bluetooth Technology • Baseband Layer • Single & Multi-Slot Frame • Power Class Table • The Protocol Stack • Network Topology • Connection States • Forming a Piconet • Security in Bluetooth • Bluetooth Profile Structure • Bluetooth Vs Wireless Technologies • Bluetooth Competitors • Planned Future Work • References A Bluetooth Overview

  3. What is Bluetooth? (i) • Bluetooth is a Radio System (Radio Frequency Standard) which defines the concept of PANs (Personal Area Network) • Nominal Link Range up to 10m/ 0dBm (~100m with 20dBm) • Transmitting between 2.402Ghz – 2.480Ghz (79 channels / on a frequency hopping scheme) • Reaching Speeds up to 720Kbps • No line-of-sight Restrictions • High Security A Bluetooth Overview

  4. What is Bluetooth? (ii) • A Bluetooth Network can consist of 7 slave devices and 1 master device • Until Bluetooth no other global cellular technology for mobile users existed • Solve a simple problem, Replace cables used on mobile devices and their peripherals with radio frequency waves • Thus Bluetooth tries to emulate cost, security and capabilities of cable for mobile users A Bluetooth Overview

  5. BluetoothDevelopment • Bluetooth as a word derived from the 10th century king of Denmark (Harald Blatand) • As a research started in 1994 by Ericsson Mobile Communications with one goal  to relief cables carried by mobile phone users • In February 1998 Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) founded, under the core promoters of • Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Toshiba and Nokia • In 1999 more core promoters added • Microsoft, Agere, 3Com and Motorola • Now exceeding 2500 members A Bluetooth Overview

  6. Program Management Board Regulatory Legal Committee Management Services (ADMIN) Marketing Bluetooth Qualification Review Board RF Regulations Sub groups Bluetooth Technical Advisory Board Architecture Review Board Test & Interoperability Aviation Regulations Bluetooth Qualification Admin Security Regulations Technical Working Groups Expert Groups Japan Regulations Bluetooth Qualification Body Errata owners and review pool Bluetooth SIG Administrative Structure Bluetooth SIG Administrative Structure A Bluetooth Overview

  7. BluetoothBaseband Layer (i) • Bluetooth operates in ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical) band of 2.4GHz • Between 2.402GHz and 2.480GHz with the spacing of 1Mhz • Using a Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) instead of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) • The FHSS scheme provides 1600 hops / second and every hop is 625μs • Bluetooth packets can be multible slots, each packet can be composed of 1, 3 or 5 slots of 625μs each. A Bluetooth Overview

  8. BluetoothBaseband Layer (ii) Voice and Data links in Bluetooth RF can be divided into two types ACL & SCO (Also a third type which combines both – DV): • ACL (Asynchronous Connection-Less) • Made for non-critical data • Provides largest data rate of 723.3 Kb/s in one direction • Asynchronous • Packet-switched • Constructed of 72 bit access code • 54 bit packet header and 16 bit CRC • SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) • SCO functionality is for critical data and voice • SCO occurs after the ACL if needed • Circuit Switched • A master can support up to 3 SCO Links • Constructed of 72 bit access code • 54 bit packet header • Uses slot reservation at fixed intervals • Data rate of 30b/s • Doesn’t have CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Code) • DV (Data Voice) • Has no flow Control or CRC (similar to SCO) • The Data part supports flow control and retransmission A Bluetooth Overview

  9. One Slot F(1) F(5) Master t Multi slot F(2)+F(3)+F(4) Slave t 625μs Bluetooth frame packets slots Bluetooth Single & Multi-Slot Frame A Bluetooth Overview

  10. BluetoothPower Class Table Bluetooth Power Class Table A Bluetooth Overview

  11. vCard/vCal WAE OBEX WAP AT-Commands TCSBIN SDP UDP TCP IP Audio PPP RFCOMM L2CAP Host Controller Interface LMP BaseBand BluetoothRadio/RF Bluetooth SIG Complete Protocol Stack (i) Complete Protocol Stack A Bluetooth Overview

  12. BluetoothProtocol Stack (ii) • The Bluetooth protocol stack may differs from application to application, depending on the needs of the implementing Bluetooth Chip. • Bluetooth Radio/RF: Broadcasting in between 79 channels (2.402GHz-2.480GHz) on a FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) scheme at 1600 hops/sec • Baseband Layer: Prepares the packets and arranges the communication channels (ACL-SCO) • LMP (Link Manager Protocol): Responsible for setting up the link between two Bluetooth radios (Security aspects and control issues on Baseband packet sizes) – Also LMP in charge of Bluetooth power modes and connection states. • L2CAP (Logical Link Control & Adaptation Protocol): L2CAP acts as a bridge between the upper layer protocols and the baseband layer. Adapts data and converts them into different packet sizes. Sometimes works in parallel with LMP, only for ACL links. • SDP (Service Discovery Protocol): Provides service discovery and is required in all usages models, by SDP we can interact-query other Bluetooth devices in the area about their status and their services. A Bluetooth Overview

  13. BluetoothProtocol Stack (iii) • RFCOMM Protocol: Cable replacement protocol, emulates RS-232 control and signals, thus provides transport to data for upper layer services such as OBEX or PPP. • TCP (Telephony Control Protocol): • Telephony Control Binary: Defines the call control signalling for establishments of speech and data cells • Telephony Control AT Commands: Controls the modem and the mobile phone commands • (Adopted Protocols) • PPP (Peer-to-Peer Protocol): Mainly for peer-to-peer networking usage • TCP/UDP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol): Mainly for usage on internet • OBEX (IrOBEX): Emulates the HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol), in common word is the web browser of the Bluetooth. • WAP (Wireless Application Protocol): Supports the usage of wireless Computer applications developed for WAE (WAP Application Environment) • VCARD & VCalendar: Type of format which data supported, not a protocol or mechanism A Bluetooth Overview

  14. M M M Master/Slave S M S S S S S S S S S i) Piconet (Point-to-Point) ii) Piconet (Multipoint) iii) Scatternet BluetoothNetwork Topology • Bluetooth devices have the ability to work as a slave or a master in an ad hoc network. The types of network configurations for Bluetooth devices can be three. • Single point-to-point (Piconet): In this topology the network consists of one master and one slave device. • Multipoint (Piconet): Such a topology combines one master device and up to seven slave devices in an ad hoc network. • Scatternet: A Scatternet is a group of Piconets linked via a slave device in one Piconet which plays master role in other Piconet. A Bluetooth Overview

  15. A B H C Master D H E I G C F BluetoothConnection States • There are four Connection states on Bluetooth Radio: • Active: Both master and slave participate actively on the channel by transmitting or receiving the packets (A,B,E,F,H) • Sniff: In this mode slave rather than listening on every slot for master's message for that slave, sniffs on specified time slots for its messages. Hence the slave can go to sleep in the free slots thus saving power (C) • Hold: In this mode, a device can temporarily not support ACL packets and go to low power sleep mode to make the channel available for things like paging, scanning etc (G) • Park: Slave stays synchronized but not participating in the Piconet, then the device is given a Parking Member Address (PMA) and it loses its Active Member Address (AMA) (D,I) Bluetooth Connection States A Bluetooth Overview

  16. Inquiry: Inquiry is used to find the identity of the Bluetooth devices in the close range. • Inquiry Scan: In this state, devices are listening for inquiries from other devices. • Inquiry Response: The slave responds with a packet that contains the slave's device access code, native clock and some other slave information. • Page:Master sends page messages by transmitting slave's device access code (DAC) in different hop channels. • Page Scan: The slave listens at a single hop frequency (derived from its page hopping sequence) in this scan window. • Slave Response: Slave responds to master's page message • Master Response: Master reaches this substate after it receives slave's response to its page message for it. Master Slave Inquiry 1 Inquiry Scan 2 Inquiry Response 3 Page 4 Page Scan 5 Slave Response 6 Master Response 7 Connection Connection BluetoothForming a Piconet Forming a Piconet Procedures A Bluetooth Overview

  17. BluetoothSecurity • Three Security Modes Available in Bluetooth: • Security Mode 1- This is the most insecure security mode in which the Bluetooth device does not initiate any security procedure. • Security Mode 2- This mode enforces security after establishment of the link between the devices at the L2CAP level. • Security Mode 3- This mode enforces security controls such as authentication and encryption at the Baseband level itself, before the connection is set up. • And three Security Controls for restricting access to services: • Access to Services would need Authorization (Authorization always includes authentication). Only trusted devices would get automatic access. • Access to Services would need only Authentication. I.e. the remote device will need to get authenticated before being able to connect to the application • Access to Services would need Encryption. The link between the two devices must be encrypted before the application can be accessed. A Bluetooth Overview

  18. Generic Access Profile TCS-BIN-based Profiles Cordless Telephony Profile Intercom Profile Service Discovery Profile Serial Port Profile Generic Object Exchange Profile Dial-up Networking Profile File Transfer Profile Fax Profile Object Push Profile Headset Profile Synchronization Profile LAN Access Profile Bluetooth Profile Structure Bluetooth Profile Structure A Bluetooth Overview

  19. 100 Mbps IEEE802.11a HyperLAN2 IrDA (VFIR) HyperLan HomeRF2.1 IEEE802.11b HomeRF2.0 10 Mbps Gross Data Rate IrDA V1.1 (FIR) DECT – DMAP (Depended On the Antenna) UMTS (TDD) IEEE802.11 (Depended on the Antenna) HomeRF1.2 1 Mbps Bluetooth IrDA V1.0 (SIR) UMTS (FDD) GPRS 100 Kbps GSM / WAP 10 m 100 m 1000 m 10000 m Distance to Access Point BluetoothVs Wireless Technologies Wireless Technologies Graph – Distance Vs Data Rate A Bluetooth Overview

  20. Bluetooth WLANs Competitors Comparison Table of the most popular WLANs Technologies A Bluetooth Overview

  21. Planned Future Work • Planned Future work will concentrate on: • Analyzing and studying deeper the capabilities on Bluetooth Technology Vs the Rest Wireless Family • Verifying that currently developed Bluetooth technology covers all the needs & necessities required for such a technology (If any further development could be done in major areas such as security or protocols) • Visualizing the procedures followed by a Bluetooth Master device to create a Piconet, in order to specify how Bluetooth interacts in Real-Time Environments • Creating a middleware platform able to interact “openly” in a Master Bluetooth device for monitoring communication issues between the Master Device and Slave Devices in a Bluetooth Piconet A Bluetooth Overview

  22. References • Specification of Bluetooth System, Profiles Version 1.1, February 22 2001, Specification Volume 2, Bluetooth SIG ( • Bluetooth Architecture Overview, James Kardach, Mobile Computing Group, Intel Corporation • Direct Sequence vs. Frequency Hopping, Wave Wireless Networking, 2000, • Bluetooth Security Architecture, Version 1.0, 15 July 1999, Thomas Muller, ( • How Bluetooth’s unusual operating characteristics impact test decisions, Teit Poulsen, September 1 2002, PRIMEDIA Business Magazines & Media • Bluetooth Protocol Architecture, Version 1.0, August 25th 1999, Riku Mettala, ( • Bluetooth Security, 2000-05-25, Juha T. Vainio, Department of Computer Science and Engineering Helsinki University of Technology A Bluetooth Overview