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1 Functions and Roles of the Financial System in the Global Economy C h a p t e r Money and Capital Markets Financial Institutions and Instruments in a Global Marketplace Eighth Edition Peter S. Rose McGraw Hill / Irwin Slides by Yee-Tien (Ted) Fu
Learning Objectives • To understand the functions performed and the roles played by the system of financial markets and institutions in the global economy. • To explore several key terms and concepts of the money and capital markets. • To discover how important the financial system is in increasing our standard of living, generating new jobs, and building our savings to meet tomorrow’s financial needs.
Introduction • The financial system is the collection of markets, institutions, laws, regulations, and techniques through which bonds, stocks, and other securities are traded, interest rates are determined, and financial services are produced and delivered around the world.
Introduction • The primary task of the financial system is to move scarce loanable funds from those who save to those who borrow to buy goods and services and to make investments in new equipment and facilities, so that the global economy can grow and the standard of living can increase.
Flows within the Global Economic System • The basic function of the economic system is to allocate scarce resources – land, labor, management skill, and capital – to produce the goods and services needed by society. • The global economy generates a flow of production in return for a flow of payments. • The circular flow of production and income is interdependent and never ending.
Land and other natural resources Labor and managerial skills Capital equipment Flow of production Goods and services sold to the public Flow of payments Flows within the Global Economic System
Flow of productive services Flow of expenditures for consumption & taxes Flow of production of goods & services Flow of incomes Producing units (mainly business firms and governments) Consuming units (mainly households) Flows within the Global Economic System
The Role of Markets in the Global Economic System • In most economies around the world, markets carry out the complex task of allocating resources and producing goods and services. • The marketplace determines what goods and services will be produced and in what quantities through their prices. • Markets also distribute income by rewarding superior producers with increased profits, higher wages, and other economic benefits.
Types of Markets • There are essentially three types of markets within the global economic system. • The factor markets allocate the factors of production to the owners of productive resources. • Consuming units use most of their income from factor markets to purchase goods and services in product markets.
Types of Markets • The financial markets channel savings to those individuals and institutions needing more funds for spending than are provided by their current incomes.
Product markets Flow of payments for consumption and taxes Flow of payments Flow of production Goods and services Financial markets Flow of funds (savings) Flow of financial services, income, and financial claims Producing units (mainly business firms and governments) Consuming units (mainly households) Flow of incomes Flow of incomes Productive services Productive services Factor markets Types of Markets
The Financial Markets and the Financial System:Channel for Savings and Investment • The financial markets make possible the exchange of current income for future income and the transformation of savings into investment so that production, employment, and income can grow. • The suppliers of funds to the financial system can expect not only to recover their original funds but also to earn additional income as a reward for waiting and for assuming risk.
Demanders of funds (mainly business firms and governments) Flow of loanable funds (savings) Suppliers of funds (mainly households) Flow of financial services, incomes, and financial claims The Global Financial System
Functions Performed by the Global Financial System and the Financial Markets • Savings function. The global system of financial markets and institutions provides a conduit for the public’s savings. • Wealth function. The financial instruments sold in the money and capital markets provide an excellent way to store wealth. • Liquidity function. Financial markets provide liquidity for savers who hold financial instruments but are in need of money.
Functions Performed by the Global Financial System and the Financial Markets • Credit function. Global financial markets furnish credit to finance consumption and investment spending. • Payments function. The global financial system provides a mechanism for making payments for goods and services.
Functions Performed by the Global Financial System and the Financial Markets • Risk protection function. The financial markets around the world offer businesses, consumers, and governments protection against life, health, property, and income risks. • Policy function. The financial markets are a channel through which governments may attempt to stabilize the economy and avoid inflation.
Types of Financial MarketsWithin the Global Financial System • The money market is for short-term (one year or less) loans, while the capital market finances long-term investments by businesses, governments, and households. • In particular, governments borrow from commercial banks in the money market, while in the capital market, insurance companies, mutual funds, security dealers, and pension funds supply the funds for businesses.
Types of Financial MarketsWithin the Global Financial System • The money market may be subdivided into Treasury bills, certificates of deposit (CDs), bankers’ acceptances, commercial paper, federal funds and Eurocurrencies. • The capital market may be subdivided into mortgage loans, tax-exempt (municipal) bonds, consumer loans, Eurobonds and Euronotes, corporate stock, and corporate notes and bonds.
Types of Financial MarketsWithin the Global Financial System • In open markets, financial instruments are sold to the highest bidder, and they can be traded as often as is desirable before they mature. In negotiated markets, the instruments are sold to one or a few buyers under private contract. • Financial capital is raised when newly issued securities are sold in the primary markets. Security trading in the secondary markets then provides liquidity for the investors.
Types of Financial MarketsWithin the Global Financial System • In the spot market, assets or financial services are traded for immediate delivery (usually within two business days). • Contracts calling for the future delivery of financial instruments are traded in the futures or forward market. • Contracts granting the right to buy or sell certain securities at specified prices within a certain period are traded in the options market.
Factors Tying All Financial Markets Together • Credit, the Common Commodity. The shifting of borrowers among markets helps to weld the parts of the global financial system together and to bring the credit costs in the different markets into balance with one another. • Speculation and Arbitrage. Speculators who watch for profitable arbitrage opportunities help to maintain consistent prices among the markets.
Factors Tying All Financial Markets Together • Perfect and Efficient Markets. There is some research evidence suggesting that financial markets are closely tied to one another due to their near perfection and efficiency. • In the real world however, market imperfection and information asymmetry exist.
The Dynamic Financial System • The global financial system is rapidly changing. • In particular, there are trends toward the deregulation of financial institutions and services, the harmonization of regulations, and global integration, leading to more intense competition as well as the development of new financial services.
The Plan of This Book • Part One provides an overview of the global financial system – its role in the world’s economy and its basic characteristics. • Part Two examines the forces that shape interest rates and the prices of financial instruments. • Part Three draws our attention to the money market and its principal instruments and institutions (including the central bank).
The Plan of This Book • Part Four gives a closer look at commercial banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations, money market funds, insurance companies, pension funds, mutual funds, and other financial-service firms. • Part Five turns to the role of governments – federal, state, and local – within the global financial system.
The Plan of This Book • Part Six focuses on the financial activities of nonfinancial business firms and consumers. • Part Seven is devoted to the international financial system and future trends in global finance.
Money and Capital Markets in Cyberspace • For more on the nature of the financial system, see http://homepages.uel.ac.uk/K.Bain/fimac223.html. • Help on planning for savings and investments is available at http://www.sec.gov/investor.shtml. • How much wealth does the U.S. really have and how unevenly is it distributed? See http://www.aei.org/research/description.htm#1.113 and http://woodrow.mpls.frb.fed.us/research/.
Money and Capital Markets in Cyberspace • For a discussion of the important roles performed by capital markets within the financial system, see http://www1.worldbank.org/finance/. • For further discussion on the low U.S. savings rate, see http://www.bankrate.com/brm/. • For a discussion of the concept of arbitrage, see http://www.finpipe.com/derivglossary.htm.
Money and Capital Markets in Cyberspace • Some experts see the Internet as a nearly perfect market. See, for example, http://www.wright.edu/~tdung/internet.htm.
Chapter Review • Introduction • The Global Economy and the Financial System • Flows within the Global Economic System • The Role of Markets in the Global Economic System • Types of Markets • The Financial Markets and the Financial System: Channel for Savings and Investment
Chapter Review • Functions Performed by the Global Financial System and the Financial Markets • Savings Function • Wealth Function • Liquidity Function • Credit Function • Payments Function • Risk Protection Function • Policy Function
Chapter Review • Types of Financial Markets Within the Global Financial System • The Money Market versus the Capital Market • Divisions of the Money and Capital Markets • Open versus Negotiated Markets • Primary versus Secondary Markets • Spot versus Futures, Forward, and Option Markets • Factors Tying All Financial Markets Together • The Dynamic Financial System
Chapter Review • The Plan of This Book