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Don’t fall away!. Don’t Depart!. Don’t neglect your salvation!. Don’t cast away your confidence!. Don’t harden your heart!. Don’t drift away!. A Study Of The Apostle Paul’s Letter To The Hebrews. How can we neglect so great a salvation? ~ Hebrews 2:3 . Hebrews: Christ Is Superior!

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A Study Of The Apostle Paul’s Letter To The Hebrews


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a study of the apostle paul s letter to the hebrews

Don’t fall away!

Don’t Depart!

Don’t neglect your salvation!

Don’t cast away your confidence!

Don’t harden your heart!

Don’t drift away!

AStudyOf TheApostlePaul’s LetterTo The Hebrews

How can we neglect so greata salvation? ~ Hebrews 2:3

slide2

Hebrews: Christ Is Superior!

Superior Person (1:1—4:13)

Superior to Prophets (1:1-3)

Superior to Angels (1:4—2:18)

Superior to Moses (3:1-19)

Superior to Joshua (4:1-13)

Superior Priest (4:14—7:28)

Superior to Aaron (4:14—6:12)

Superior to Melchizedek (6:13—7:10)

Superior to Levi (7:11-28)

slide3

Hebrews: Christ Is Superior!

Superior Pact to Moses’ (8:1—10:18)

Superior Promises (8:1-13)

Superior Sanctuary (9:1-15) but…

We’ll only get to verses 1-10 today.

Superior Sacrifice (9:16-28)

Superior Results (10:1-18)

Superior Principle (Faith) to Moses’ (10:19—13:25)

Superior Things (10:19-39)

Superior Actions (11:1-40)

Superior Relationship (12:1-29)

Superior Way of Life (13:1-25)

slide4

After writing about Christ being a su-perior person and a superior priest in chapters 1—7, Paul began chapter 8 writing about Christ having a superior pact or covenant, a study that extends through 10:18.

slide5

Now, since Paul has shown in chapter 8 that Christ’s covenant is founded upon better promises than that of Moses, he proceeded in chapter 9 to show that Christ’s covenant also includes a better sanctuary than that of Aaron and his priestly lineage. So…

Let’s begin today’s study with…  

slide6

Hebrews 9:1

Then indeed even the first covenant had ordinances of divine service and the earthly sanc-tuary.

slide7

This refers to the rules and rites of worship tailored for divine service; some of these are talked about in verses 6-10.

Then indeed even the first covenant had ordinances of divine service and the earthly sanc-tuary.

slide8

This is from the Greek word kosmos andlikelyhasrefer- ence to another of its accepted mean-ings besides world and earth: here it probably refers to that which is orna-mental or beautiful due to its arrange-ment & orderliness. So…   

Then indeed even the first covenant had ordinances of divine service and the earthly sanc-tuary.

slide9

Here it could refer to the sanctuary as being decked out with the furniture used in worship to Yahweh. After all, Paul did go on in verses 2-5 to de-scribe the inside of this God-designed tabernacle (8:5). So…   

Then indeed even the first covenant had ordinances of divine service and the earthly sanc-tuary.

slide10

Keeping in mind that Paul was writing to Jewish Christians who still had some affinity to the Law, 9:1 fits perfectly between 8:13 and 9:11 when read as follows:Yes,you’reright:the firstcove-nant had rules of worship and a beauti-ful place of worship…. But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more per-fect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.

slide11

Hebrews 9:2

For a tabernacle was prepared: the firstpart,inwhich was the lamp-stand, the table, and the show-bread, which is called the sanc-tuary…

slide12

Paulbrought to mind the original tabernacle referred to in 8:5.

(As we get into this, I must say with Paul [v. 5] that I won’t have time to deal with what every-thing symbolized for the New Testament times.)

For a tabernacle was prepared: the firstpart,inwhich was the lamp-stand, the table, and the show-bread, which is called the sanc-tuary…

slide13

This was made up of seven oil-lamps; they were kept lighted all night, every night, from evening until morn-ing (Lev. 24:2-4).

For a tabernacle was prepared: the firstpart,inwhich was the lamp-stand, the table, and the show-bread, which is called the sanc-tuary…

slide15

The bread was called this because the original terminology for it referred to… thebreadof thepre-sence, the presence of God, that is.  

For a tabernacle was prepared: the firstpart,inwhich was the lamp-stand, the table, and the show-bread, which is called the sanc-tuary…

slide16

There were 12 un-leavened loaves of this bread—one for each tribe (like we have one for each con-gregation), and they were eaten by the priests every sab- bath day(Lev.24:5ff), just like we (priests today) eat our loaf of bread every Sunday.

For a tabernacle was prepared: the firstpart,inwhich was the lamp-stand, the table, and the show-bread, which is called the sanc-tuary…

slide18

Sanctuary is from the term for holy, which is why we often hear the first room of the taber-nacle calledthe holyplace as opposed to the second part of the tabernacle calledthe most holy place.

For a tabernacle was prepared: the firstpart,inwhich was the lamp-stand, the table, and the show-bread, which is called thesanc-tuary…

slide19

Hebrews 9:3

…and behind the second veil, the part of the taber-nacle which is called the holiest of all…

slide20

There were actually two veils (or doors, if you will): one on the east side exterior of the tabernacle to separate the outer court from the in-terior of the taber-nacle (Exo. 26:36-37)and one in the in-terior near the west side to separate the most holy place from the holy place(Exo.26:31-33).

…and behind the second veil, the part of the taber-nacle which is called the holiest of all…

slide23

There’s one impor-tant thing I need to point out concern-ing the holiest of all here: Unlike the holy place that was rectangular, the holy of holies was square. Now… 

…and behind the second veil, the part of the taber-nacle which is called the holiest of all…

slide24

Notice what John said about the New Jerusalem: The city is laid out as a square…. Its length, breadth, & height are equal (Rev. 21:16); i.e., it’s also a perfect cube. Besides that…

John further said, I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of Heaven from God…. And I heard a loud voice … saying, “Behold,the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His peo-ple, and God Himself will be with them and be their God” (Rev. 21:2-3). So… 

slide25

Since Paul associated the Old Covenant with Old Jerusalem and the New Cove-nant with New Jerusalem (Gal. 4:22-26), then we can conclude that in AD 70 (when Old Jerusalem was annihilated once and for all, taking all its leftovers with it) the coming of New Jerusalem arrived with the fullness of the New Covenant, bringing with it the restora-tionofGod’spresence(v.10&Acts3:19ff).

slide26

Hebrews 9:4

…which had the golden altar of in-cense and the ark of the covenant overlaid on all sides with gold,in which were the golden pot that had the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant…

Exo. 16:32-33

Num. 17:1-10

Exo. 25:16

slide27

Actually, this altar was in the holy place (Exo. 30:6-8), not the most holy place. So why did Paul seemingly place it in the most holy place here? Because, although upon this altar in-cense was burned twice a day (Exo. 30: 7-8), that wasn’t its primary purpose.   

…which had the golden altar of in-cense and the ark of the covenant overlaid on all sides with gold,in which were the golden pot that had the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant…

slide28

Its primary purpose was to provide burn-ing coals for the high priest to take into theholiestplaceand put on the mercy seat of the ark with incense on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:12f); this is why it was positioned immediately in front of the interior veil to the holiest of all.

…which had the golden altar of in-cense and the ark of the covenant overlaid on all sides with gold,in which were the golden pot that had the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant…

slide30

Hebrews 9:5

…and above it were the cheru-bim of glory over-shadowing the mercy seat. Of these things we cannot now speak in detail.

slide31

Cherubim is plural for cherub, a heav-enly or angelic crea-ture, depicted to us as a being made up of differing parts of various animals of Earth, even humans (cf. Eze. 1 w/ 10).

…and above it were the cheru-bim of glory over-shadowing the mercy seat. Of these things we cannot now speak in detail.

slide32

They’re of glory pro-bably because of their position by the place of God’s pre-sence or glory, then and now (cf. 1 Sam. 4:21-22).

By the way …  

…and above it were the cheru-bim of glory over-shadowing the mercy seat. Of these things we cannot now speak in detail.

slide33

Aside from the fact that they’re describ- ed as looking slightly different (cf. Isa. 6 w/ Eze. 10), the only difference between cherubim and sera-phim seems to be primarilyintheiran-gelic rank.

…and above it were the cheru-bim of glory over-shadowing the mercy seat. Of these things we cannot now speak in detail.

slide34

The original word here is translated propitiation in Rom. 3:25 and refers to reconciliation by means of covering.

…and above it were the cheru-bim of glory over-shadowing the mercy seat. Of these things we cannot now speak in detail.

slide35

This ark-covering symbolized God’s throne where mercy is offered on the basis of satisfied justice. God once said to Moses about this ark & mercy seat, There I will meet you, and I will speak with you from above the mercy seat, from between the two cherubim which are on the ark of the Testimony (Exo. 25:22), and this He did (Num. 7:89).

slide38

An interesting side-point here is that when the high priest placed the blood on the mercy seat (Lev. 16:14), it por-trayed God as seeing only the blood sacrifice, not the broken covenant covered by the mercy seat; thisimplied that man wouldn’t andcouldn’t be saved by law.

slide39

Remember the time when God struck 50,000+ men dead for looking into the ark of the covenant (1 Sam. 6:19-20)? And remember in the Indiana Jones movie how everyone who looked into the ark there died as well? Why? Be-cause they had to remove the mercy seat in order to look in at the Law. So…

The point seems very clear that God was saying, Apart from My mercy, the Law is death.

slide40

Hebrews 9:6

Now when these things had been thus prepared, the priests always went into the first part of the taber-nacle, performing the services.

slide41

After Paul had dealt sufficiently with the tabernacle, he pro-ceeded in verses 6-10 to talk about some of the services performed in it and how that the new system is superior to the old. His main point here seems to have been to empha- size their inacces-sibility to the holy of holies.

Now when these things had been thus prepared, the priests always went into the first part of the taber-nacle, performing the services.

slide42

Since Paul was speaking about the first part of the tab-ernacle—theholy place, then the priests here were obviously the ordi-nary priests, not the high priests men-tioned in the next verse.

Now when these things had been thus prepared, the priests always went into the first part of the taber-nacle, performing the services.

slide43

This is a contrast word, meaning that while the high priest went into the most holy place twice one day a year, priests went into the holy place at least twice every day a year.

Now when these things had been thus prepared, the priests always went into the first part of the taber-nacle, performing the services.

slide45

Hebrews 9:7

But into the se-cond part the high priest went alone once a year, notwithoutblood, which he offered for himself and for the people’s sins committed in ignorance…

slide46

Unlike the ordinary priests, it seems that the high priest could only enter the tabernacle one dayoftheyear—the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:2 & 34), the 10th of Tishri (Lev. 16:29, falling around our Oct. 1st); we may better recognize this day as Yom Kippur.

But into the se-cond part the high priest went alone once a year, notwithoutblood, which he offered for himself and for the people’s sins committed in ignorance…

slide47

On that day he en-tered the holiest placetwice: firstly with incense and bull’s blood for his sins (that which ourHigh Priest didn’t needtodo,7:26),then secondly with goat’s blood for the sins of the people.

But into the se-cond part the high priest went alone once a year, notwithoutblood, which he offered for himself and for the people’s sins committed in ignorance…

slide49

There are three dif-ferent Greek terms translated as for: one that meant in order to (Acts 2:38), one that meant in placeof(1Cor.11:15), and this one that meant on behalf of.

But into the se-cond part the high priest went alone once a year, notwithoutblood, which he offered for himself and for the people’s sins committed in ignorance…

slide50

Although this is an accurate translation,I believe with others that these Jewish readers knew Paul was referring to all sin (except maybe the high-handed sins of Num. 15:30-31), in-cluding those com-mitted in ignorance. Why? Because… 

But into the se-cond part the high priest went alone once a year, notwithoutblood, which he offered for himself and for the people’s sins committed in ignorance…

slide51

1. If sins of ignorance are included, then logic dictates that the others were also! And…

2. I can’t read Leviticus 16 and come away with any other belief, especi- ally verse 16: God said of the high priest, He shall make atonement … because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of theirtransgressions,foralltheirsins.

By the way, the student should also carefully notethe present tense throughout verses 6 & 7![Cf. The Kingdom Interlinear for example.]

slide52

Hebrews 9:8

…the Holy Spirit indicating this, that the way into the Holiest of All was not yet made manifest while the first tabernacle was still standing.

slide53

In writing this (note the present tense), Paul wassaying that the tabernacle, with all its varying types of limited services, symbolized some-thing (v. 9a): the main thing it sym-bolized was that, before Christ came, God’s presence was inaccessible. Here are the facts:  

…the Holy Spirit indicating this, that the way into the Holiest of All was not yet made manifest while the first tabernacle was still standing.

slide54

Instead of being out in the openamong the people like a politicianvying for office, God sat on a small throne, in a small room that only one person, one day a year, could enter. And even that seemed to be anecessary evil in order to depict how God would finally work out man’s reconciliation to Him once and for all through His Son, Jesus the Christ!

slide55

More literally this reads, has not yet been made. (As has been noted at previ-ous times,translator bias is very strongly felt in passages like this as we’ll see again later in this verse as well as in the next one.)

…the Holy Spirit indicating this, that the way into the Holiest of All was not yet made manifest while the first tabernacle was still standing.

slide56

This is from the exact same original phrase as has been found throughout this passage when Paul wrote about the first part or the holy place of the tabernacle. And… 

…the Holy Spirit indicating this, that the way into the Holiest of All was not yet made manifest while the first tabernacle was still standing.

slide57

This phrase literally reads,hasastanding —status or position of some eminence in God’s eyes. So… 

…the Holy Spirit indicating this, that the way into the Holiest of All was not yet made manifest while the first tabernacle was still standing.

slide58

Especiallyaswemoveinto verses 9-10 in which Paul listed several works that had to be constantly executed within the holy place, think about this: I believe Paul was implying that the first (part of the) tabernacle, the holy place, repre-sented works, all of which didn’t make the priests, much less ordinary people, worthy of God’s presence. (Even the HP had to make an offering for himself before he could make one for the people. ) So…

slide59

When His Son died, God (prefiguring what would soon be accomplished in Christ at AD 70) tore down the veil that sepa-rated the ordinary priests from His presence (Mark 15:38), denoting that the necessity of all these works of law were going to be done away with once and for all (time and people); any posi-tionofeminencethat theholyplace once had before God was going to be removed, and the two rooms would become one, manifesting the way into the eternal presence of God by grace.

slide61

We have this!

Heaven & Earth are united (Eph. 1:10).

slide62

Hebrews 9:9

It was symbolic for the present timeinwhichboth giftsandsacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience.

slide63

As I said in the last verse,thisversealso has hints of bias in translation of tim-ing. In the literal there’s no verb found here at all; rather, based on the previous statement, it reads in the pre-sent tense like this:

It was symbolic for the present timeinwhichboth giftsandsacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience.

slide64

The way into the Holiest of All has not yet been made manifest while the first tabernacle still has a standing—a symbol. NOTE:for the present time, or as Vine says (p.802), (the time) nowpre-sent.

It was symbolic for the present timeinwhichboth giftsandsacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience.

slide65

This is from the word for parable,^an il-lustration used to explain something by comparison; i.e., the tabernacle (and later the temple) was never meant to be the real thing, but only to portray and point tothe real thing—reconciliation to God by means of Heaven’s Kingdom.

It was symbolic for the present timeinwhichboth giftsandsacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience.

^I.e., Hebrews 9 is Christ’s last parable.

slide66

As pointed out vari-ous times already in these studies, notice here once again that Paul used the pre-sent tense when speaking of Judaic sacrifices which would once-for-all be removed from God’s sight inAD70. (See the NASB on verses 8-10! )

It was symbolic for the present timeinwhichboth giftsandsacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience.

slide67

This means that the OT saint could never have the sense of forgiveness that you & I can have today, becausehe wascon-stantly reminded ofpast sins that kept catching up with him … again and again and again (cf. 10:3).

It was symbolic for the present timeinwhichboth giftsandsacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience.

slide68

As touched on in our laststudyof8:10-11, they did what they did in the OT to try toget saved,instead of doing what they did to show appre-ciation for being saved. The OT just couldn’t provide an eternal, internal cleansing & perfec-tion since it was...

It was symbolic for the present timeinwhichboth giftsandsacrifices are offered which cannot make him who performed the service perfect in regard to the conscience.

slide69

Hebrews 9:10

…concerned only with foods and drinks, various washings, and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of reforma-tion.

slide70

The Law, especially the ceremonial part of it (which seemed to be most of it), just concerned itself withthings related to that which is physical in nature. Why? In order to symbolize that which would be more important & of a spiritual nature in their future.

…concerned only with foods and drinks, various washings, and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of reforma-tion.

slide71

This means exactly what it sounds like: that which was ori-ginally created or formed straight be-came warped, so Je-sus came to reform it—to straighten it back out.

…concerned only with foods and drinks, various washings, and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of reforma-tion.

slide72

Related phrases are the regeneration (Mat. 19:28) and the times of restoration (Acts 3:21), all three referring to the age-changing event in AD 70, just 5 to 7 years from the writ-ing of Hebrews; in-cidentally, notice the present tense in verses 9 & 10: are … concerned!

…concerned only with foods and drinks, various washings, and fleshly ordinances imposed until the time of reforma-tion.

slide73

In Eden God and Adam walked togeth-er in the cool of the day (Gen. 3:8), sin entered (Gen. 3:1-5), separating man from God (Isa. 59:2), so Jesus (the second Adam, 1 Cor. 15:45) came and restored that relationship for all who desire it (Rom. 5:10 & 2 Cor. 5:18).

I like what Clarke noted:   

slide74

He called thisthe time of rectificationwhen everything would be set straight: the ceremonial law would be fulfilled and terminated; the moral law would be exemplified and strictly required; and the spiritual nature of worship would be taught and grace provided to purify the heart so that all which was wrong in the soul would be rectified—the affections, the passions, and the appetites would be purified, the under-standing enlightened, judgment cor-rected, and the will refined. I.e., every-thing would be made new. (Slightly Paraphrased)