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Genetics!. Objectives. Analyze Meiosis and Mitosis Discuss Gregor Mendel and his contributions to genetics. Essential Question. Who was Gregor Mendel and what did he study?. Back in the Day. Gregor Mendel THE FATHER OF GENETICS 1822-1884 Priest

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  • Analyze Meiosis and Mitosis
  • Discuss Gregor Mendel and his contributions to genetics
essential question
Essential Question
  • Who was Gregor Mendel and what did he study?
back in the day
Back in the Day
  • 1822-1884
  • Priest
  • Study the inheritance traits in pea plants
  • Not recognized until the 20th century
what did this mean
What did this mean?
  • Selective Breeding
  • Crossbreeding
  • Heritability
    • What traits get passed on?
what about today
What about today?
  • Crossbreeding breeds registered
  • Cross bred crops
    • Aprium , Pluot, Grapple
  • Cross Bred Animals
    • Black Baldie, Labordoodle
  • Biotechnology
    • Fish in Strawberries to prevent freezer burn
    • Sub- arctic fish genes pumped into strawberries
let s break it down
Let’s Break it Down
  • Where is the information coming from?
  • Where is it stored?
  • What does it look like?
  • What information is carried?
mitosis activity please draw on a separate sheet of paper mitosis on the back we will draw meiosis
MitosisActivity:Please draw on a separate sheet of paper Mitosis. On the back we will draw Meiosis
what does it look like
What does it look like?
  • Genotype
  • Phenotype
  • Video; Intro to Genetics united Streaming
vocabulary please define
Vocabulary: Please Define

Cross Breeding

Selective Breeding



  • Heritability
  • Gregor Mendel
  • Gene
  • Chromosome
  • Genotype
  • Phenotype
  • Pedigree
  • Gamete
genetics the punnett square

Genetics!The Punnett Square

Middletown High School

Spring 2009

  • Analyze heritable traits
  • Calculate heritability using Punnett Square Method
essential question1
Essential Question
  • What does the Punnett Square represent/ Calculate?
what is a punnett square
What is a Punnett Square?
  • an n × n square used in genetics to calculate the frequencies of the different genotypes and phenotypes among the offspring of a cross
what does it mean
What does it mean?
  • We can follow traits
reading the results
Reading the Results





let s practice
Let’s Practice
  • Worksheet- Punnett Practice
  • Punnett Square
  • Heritability
  • Monohybrid
  • Dihybrid
what do we look for

What do we look for?

Genetics in Animals

  • Identify traits in animal breeding that are desirable based on breed and that are heritable
essential question2
Essential Question
  • Where do you find information on heritable breed traits?
general concepts
General Concepts
  • Certain traits are heritable
  • Hybrid vigor
  • Purebred
  • What kind of traits would you want in YOUR dog? If you had:
    • Children
    • Small apartment
    • Sheep herd
    • Loved running ?
  • Temperament can be bred for!
    • Especially aggression
  • Watch for heritable health risks
    • Eye Problems
      • Irish Setters and Progressive Retinal Atrophy
      • Collie Eye Anomaly
      • Cataracts
      • Entropion (eyelids turn in or out)
dogs heritable health contin
Dogs- Heritable Health Contin
  • Hips and Joints
    • Hip dysplasia
      • Malformation/degeneration of the hip joint.
        • Retrievers, Cocker Spaniels, Shetland Sheepdog
    • Osteochondrosis Dessicans (OCD)
      • Bone spur or flake wears away at joint.
        • Present in dogs with OCD
    • Pateller Luxation
      • Elbow/kneecap slides out of place locking leg
        • Occurs more in smaller dogs
cats heritable health
Cats- Heritable Health
  • Polydactyly
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
    • Heart muscle thickens
      • Main Coon Cats
  • Progressive Retinal Atrophy
  • Diabetes
    • Burmese
  • Feline Infectious Peritonitis
    • Some cats have a predisposition to the development of FIA
cattle dairy cattle
Cattle – Dairy Cattle
  • Milk production
  • Milk Fat Content
  • Efficiency
    • Feed intake to Milk Output
  • Calving ability
sire summary in cow calf op s
Sire Summary in Cow/Calf Op.s

Table 1Example of sire summary data from the 1984 Angus sire summary

University of Missouri: Extension

  • EPD: Expected Progeny Difference: express the genetic transmitting ability of a sire. The EPD is reported as a plus or minus value in the unit in which the trait is measured.
  • EPDs are calculated from a sire's progeny data. All bulls listed in the sire summary can be directly compared using EPD values. EPDs are an estimate of how a bull's progeny would be expected to perform compared to any other bull listed in the same summary.
  • ACC: Accuracy is a measure of how much the EPD value might change as additional progeny data become available. Sires with more calves in several different herds will have higher accuracy figures
  • Select bulls to use based upon their EPD values and use the accuracy figure to determine how much to use a bull.
  • Maternal Breeding Value (MBV) describes how daughters of a bull are expected to produce compared to other cows in a herd. Once a bull's own daughters come into production, the MBV is calculated using the records of his own daughters in addition to those of his sire and paternal and maternal grandsires.
  • Estimates of MBVs come from pedigree analysis, not sire evaluation
  • Number of Daughters.
  • Why would this information be needed or relevant?
why perform strict analysis
Why perform strict analysis?
  • Both commercial and seedstock producers should find sire summaries useful. A producer using AI can obtain semen from bulls that are superior in the traits of interest.
  • Summaries also can be used to identify herds that excel in genetic merit and vice versa. A breeder who has several superior bulls listed in the report is a more reliable source of bulls than either the breeder who has no bulls listed or the breeder who has poorer than average bulls listed in the summary.
evaluating epd s exercise worth 50 points
Evaluating EPD’s Exercise Worth 50 points
  • Using the booklet provided at your TABLE please:
    • 1. Read the Packet!
    • 2. Formulate a Vocabulary sheet for ALL vocab words defined (all the abbreviations)
    • 3. Answer the worksheet questions in groups.
    • 4. Write down any questions you have.
    • Due Thursday!!!!!!
once finished epd worksheet
Once Finished EPD worksheet
  • Summary Paper
    • 1 paragraph double spaced
      • Define the purpose of a Sire Summary. Who benefits from the sire summaries? What do sire summaries mean for producers? What information is provided on a sire summary?
genetic terms to know

Genetic Terms to know

Middletown High School

Spring 2009

  • Define terms normally used when explaining and discussing genetics
essential question3
Essential Question
  • Why is using appropriate terminology important in Veterinary Science?
co dominance
Co Dominance
  • A condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other
  • Example: Roan coloring in cattle
roan coloring in cattle
Roan Coloring in Cattle
  • R is Red W is white
  • F1 Generation
    • All Roan
  • F2 Generation
    • 25% Red
    • 50% Roan
    • 25% White
    • 1:2:1 Ratio
sex limited genes
Sex Limited Genes
  • Gene that exerts its effects primarily in one sex because of activation by androgens or estrogens
  • Both sexes may have the gene
  • Example hen/rooster feathering
sex determination
Sex Determination
  • Mammals
    • Determined at moment of fertilization
    • Female has regular chromosomes plus an XX
    • Male has only 1 sex chromosome Y
  • Birds
    • Females determine the sex of the offspring
sex influenced genes
Sex Influenced Genes
  • Trait expressed to different extents depending on the sex of the individual.
  • Normally phenotypically recognized
  • Examples
    • Male pattern baldness in humans (comes from your mother)
    • Horns in sheep
    • Spotting in cattle
sex linked characteristics
Sex Linked Characteristics
  • Genes carried on the sex chromosome
  • Example barred feather coloring in chickens
genetics activities
Genetics Activities
  • Chromosomes and Genes
    • Simulation Activity
  • Dihybrid Guinea Pigs
  • Design a Species
  • Hardy-Weinburg?
genetics in animals
Genetics in Animals
  • Using the terms learned today.
  • Find examples other than those used in the presentation to help define 1 vocabulary word from today
  • Vocab
    • Sex Linked - Codominance
    • Sex influenced - Sex limited
gene behavior

Gene Behavior

Middletown High School

Spring 2009

  • Discuss common gene behavior
essential question4
Essential Question
  • What types of gene behavior might appear as a phenotypic result
  • Tendency for certain traits to appear in groups in the offspring
  • Genes closer together on the chromosome are more likely to stay together
  • During meiosis chromosomes line up closely
  • Sometimes the genes jump and cross over forming new chromosomes with different combinations of genes
  • The farther apart two genes are on a chromosome the more likely they are to make a new combination
  • New trait appears that did not exist in parents
  • Some are harmful some are beneficial
  • Radiation will cause genes to mutate
  • Example: Polled Herefords
    • Cross between to horned resulted in polled
    • Polled is dominant – one parent must be polled
mutation activity library 10 14 11 30 12 30pm
Mutation Activity: Library 10/14 11:30-12:30pm
  • Research a mutation
  • Write a paragraph summary describing the condition, what causes the condition, and if the condition benefits or harms the animal.
  • Provide sources in APA format have at least 2
  • This will be presented, and collected for grading. COMPLETE SENTENCES please
final vocabulary



Sex linked

Sex influenced

Sex limited






Hybrid Vigor

Punnett Square




Final Vocabulary


Gregor Mendel







Cross Breeding

Selective Breeding