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Agricultural Science Teachers. Presentation Oilseed Rape Maize Geraldine Hynes B.Agr.Sc. H.D.B.S. Teagasc Drystock Advisor Claremorris Co Mayo

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agricultural science teachers
Agricultural Science Teachers

Presentation Oilseed Rape

Maize

Geraldine Hynes B.Agr.Sc. H.D.B.S.

Teagasc Drystock Advisor

Claremorris Co Mayo

(094 ) 9371360 Dec 09

oil seed rape
Oil Seed Rape

Source World wide source of Vegetable oil

IRL `90s 6000ha – UK for processing

CAP economically unattractive

`05 SFP and energy premium

Energy Crop Scheme €45 /ha max

National top up €80/ha max 37.5 ha

+ demand from local bio fuel processors

grown on contract Quinns Baltinglass, Glanbia

Ireland 4500 ha

rotation and soils
Rotation and Soils
  • Free draining Med heavy Soil
  • Poor yield light /waterlogged soils
  • Ph 6.3
  • OSR Brassica crop
  • Previously Brassicas Club root leave 4 yrs
  • Previously Sugar Beet Beet Cyst eelworm leave 2 yrs
  • Good as break crop - Deep roots improve soil structure
establishment
Establishment
  • Winter OSR Mid Aug (North) – Mid Sept (South )
  • 60-80seeds/m2 30-50plants/m2 in spring
  • Allows sufficient light to base ,encourage branching and pod numbers
  • Spring OSR Mid March - April
  • 100-120 seeds/m2
  • Fine firm level seed bed depth 1.5cm
  • Ploughing one pass drilling
  • In dry conditions to avoid compaction
  • Roll - firm seed bed
  • -Moisture retention
varieties spring osr
Varieties Spring OSR
  • HGCA List UK Home Grown Cereal Authority
lime and fertiliser
Lime and Fertiliser
  • PH 6.5
  • N 130-150kgsN/ha.
  • P + K Soil index 3 20kgs P 35 kgs K /ha.
  • e.g. 400kg/ha 18 6 12 /ha and top dress post emergence with Nitrogen
  • 50% incorporated pre sowing / Vigorous growth
  • Remainder rosette to early stem stage
  • Sandy soils Sulphur deficiency 20kgs.ha
  • Boron deficiency common especially in drought conditions
  • Apply Bo fertilizer / Solubar spray @5-10kgs./ha.
weed control
Weed Control
  • Pre sowing
  • Incorporate Treflan (Chickweed/Fat Hen/Speedweel
  • Pre emergence Trifuralin /Butisan
  • (Knotgrass / Mayweeds)
  • Post emergence
  • Kerb Flow grass weeds broadleaf weeds
disease
Disease
  • Phoma leaf spot (Canker ) 25% reduction in yield
  • Light leaf spot 50%
  • Sclerotina effects petals leaf stem 50%
  • Alternaria pod spot
  • WOSR I to 2 sprays of a fungicide to cover above
  • SOSR usually disease free
harvesting
Harvesting
  • End July early August 90% seeds are black
  • 1. Desication and direct combing weedy crops
  • Glyophosphate products 14- 21 days pre harvest (2/3 pods are brown ) scutch/perennial weeds controled
  • Diquat products 7-10 days pre harvest (Bottom pods Brown /black : middle reddish brown )
  • 2. Swathing done in exposed locations
  • 6-7weeks after the end flowering( seeds top pods turning green to brown : middle brown : lower pods dark brown )
  • 7-14 days later combine seeds black
  • Suits exposed weed free fields
maize
Maize
  • Why grow
  • High in energy less meals required
  • Could replace 50% silage
  • In cow increases intake by 10%
  • increases milk fat and protein 3- 5%
  • Cattle increased performance by 10%
  • Easy to ensile
  • Utilises slurry well
feeding value
Feeding value
  • Protein 9%- 11 % low
  • Grass silage 12-15%
  • Introduce Maize Gradually
  • Feed with long fibre hay /straw if main roughage
  • Minerals low so balance with Maize Balancer
  • Maize silage spoils quicker than grass
  • Don’t ruffle feed face esp. in mild weather
  • Slightly Cheaper /ton dm €91 versus €118 grass silage
site selection
Site Selection
  • Requires 10° C
  • Ontario Heat units (based on max min temp e.g crop needs 2400 OHU from sowing to harvest
  • Ireland south of line from Dundalk to Fermoy back up to Galway
  • Outside this will grow but yield poor
site selection cont d
Site Selection (cont`d)
  • Sheltered fields
  • Well drained good soil
  • Southerly Aspect so max. sunlight &temp long growing season
  • Good access to facilitate slurry in Spring harvesting in Autumn
  • Grown continuously without rotational constraints
variety
Variety
  • Good yield
  • Maturity date
  • Lodging resistance
  • Disease Resistance
  • DAFF Recommended list
sowing date
Sowing date
  • Requires 10 C
  • Seed sown in cold soils poor emergence and vigour
  • April 20 th complete May 10 th
  • Seed rate 105,000 to110,000/ha
  • 1acre packs Seed dressed soilborne diseases and bird repellent
  • Germination 90%
  • Plant population 100,000 above this
  • DM% is low and delay in maturing
fertiliser
Fertiliser
  • Cattle /Pig slurry Ploughed in Mar/Apr
  • should supply most of P&K
  • Nitrogen 80 - 225kgs /ha.
  • Phosphorous 10 - 70 kgs
  • Potash 100- 285kgs
seedbed preparations
Seedbed Preparations
  • Has deep and flat rooted plant system
  • Plough Deep (10 - 13 cm )
  • Generally 2 passes power harrow
  • Firm fine tilth similar to sugar beet
  • Light rolling to ensure good consolation
sowing
Sowing
  • Precision drill in rows 70 -75 cm apart
  • at a depth of 4cm in heavy soils
  • 6 cm in light soils
  • Too deep will delay emergence
  • Plant at right angles to the prevailing

wind to facilitate harvesting if lodged

Plastic photodegradable

increases temp 3.5 C in May

3.9 C in June

1.0 C in July

Cost €300/ha cost effective increases dm yield

increases DM content

increases starch content

weed pest control
Weed Pest Control
  • Perennial weeds Scutch/ Docks in Autumn with Round up ?? (C `ant plough grassland

between October 15 and Dec1 0(Green cover 6wks)

  • Pre emergence Cadou Star
  • Post emergence Dow Shield/Titus
  • Annual weeds/Broadleaf weeds
  • Pests not problem
  • Leatherjackets /wireworms after grass Yaltox
  • Frit fly Yellow dead central shoot Dursban
harvesting1
Harvesting
  • Unlike grass silage DMD does not fall rapidly DMD 68% ( range 60-72)
  • >30 % DM hard passes through animal
  • High DM crops corn cracker used
  • Harder to ensile Clamp consolidation
  • More Aerobic deterioration
  • 27% Grain med to hard dough stage
  • Top of grain starting to dimple
  • Harvest Sept. _ early maturing crops
  • Harvest Oct _ Majority varieties
harvesting cont d
Harvesting Cont`d
  • Chop length 1- 1.5cm so most grains are ruptured
  • By varying the no blades and speed of feed roller
  • Generally no additive used
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