the role of information technologies and science in the prevention of bioterrorism n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Role of Information Technologies and Science in the Prevention of Bioterrorism PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Role of Information Technologies and Science in the Prevention of Bioterrorism

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

The Role of Information Technologies and Science in the Prevention of Bioterrorism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

The Role of Information Technologies and Science in the Prevention of Bioterrorism. Eugene Shubnikov, MD, Institute of Internal Medicine, Russia; Supercourse Team, Pittsburgh and the Rest of the world . Novosibirsk, Ebola Virus Laboratory, Vector.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

The Role of Information Technologies and Science in the Prevention of Bioterrorism

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
the role of information technologies and science in the prevention of bioterrorism

The Role of Information Technologies and Science in the Prevention of Bioterrorism

Eugene Shubnikov, MD, Institute of Internal Medicine, Russia;

Supercourse Team, Pittsburgh and the Rest of the world

steps in developing of russian fsu supercourse
Steps in Developing of Russian/FSU Supercourse:
  • Network of the scientists involved in prevention and the Internet in Russia and FSU
  • Russian Language or Russia/ FSU’s connected Public Health Library of lectures at the Internet
  • I-prevention Program with relations between Russian, FSU, US and scientists from around of the world

Russia and FSU

15 countries in FSU Supercourse

communications between members
Communications between members
  • Mailing list
  • Sharing of lectures
  • Personal E-mail contacts
  • Personal meetings
our help for russian fsu public health teachers
Our Help for Russian/ FSU Public Health Teachers
  • Cutting edge, interesting lectures available from Supercourse
  • Free access to the Supercourse web library of lectures
  • Share knowledge, education and training systems with other public health professionals in FSU and worldwide
biological terrorism
Biological terrorism
  • Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness, death and terror
  • The paths of infection can be contaminated water, food, air and packages.
  • Microbes
    • Bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Toxins

Phillip L. Coule, M.D.

types of terrorism
Types of Terrorism
  • Domestic terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government without foreign involvement. Oklahoma City is a primary example.
  • International terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States. Sept. 11 is an example of International Terrorism.

the Center for National Security Studies

methods of terrorism
Methods of Terrorism
  • Firearms
  • Explosive and Incendiary Devices
  • Chemical Agents
  • Biological Agents
  • Nuclear Weapon
definition of bioterrorism
Definition of bioterrorism
  • Bioterrosim is the threat or use of biological agents by individuals or groups motivated by political, religious, ecological, social or for other ideological objectives to inculcate fear or cause illness or death in order to achieve their objective. (Carus 1998*).

Fred T Muwanga MD Msc

response and prevention of bioterrorism
Response involves:

emergency measures to save lives

active case finding through surveillance

establish diagnostic criteria(case definition) and case management

prevention and management of secondary contamination

Accurate laboratory work

Prevention measures

Strategy formulation that stress deterrence as well as crisis and consequence management.

Do a threat analysis so as to define the requirements

contingency planning with clear definition of roles

global surveillance of disease outbreaks to create more understanding on emerging threats

Response and prevention of bioterrorism

Fred T Muwanga MD Msc

questions for reflection
With largely theoretical knowledge on bioterrorism, how best can we understand the problem we are faced with ?

What ability and/or capacity does the world have to respond to the challenges of bioterrorism?

What is the dividing line between bioterrorism and criminal activity ?

Questions for reflection

Fred T Muwanga MD Msc

bioterrorism basics
Bioterrorism Basics

Definition: The unlawful use, or threatened use, of microorganisms or toxins derived from living organisms to produce death or disease in humans, animals, or plants. The act is intended to create fear and/or intimidate governments or societies in pursuit of political, religious, or ideological goals.

bioterrorism basics1
Bioterrorism Basics

What makes the use of biological agents so attractive to the terrorist?

  • Ease of Acquisition
    • Information readily accessible on World Wide Web
    • American Type Culture Collection, other sources
  • Ease and Economy of Production
    • Only basic microbiology equipment necessary
    • Small labs require no special licensing
    • Investment to cause 50% casualty rate per sq. km:

Conventional weapon $2000, nuclear $800, anthrax $1

  • Lethality
    • 50 kg aerosolized anthrax = 100,000 mortality
    • Sverdlovsk experience, former USSR
bioterrorism basics2
Bioterrorism Basics

What makes the use of biological agents so attractive to the terrorist?

  • Stability
  • Infectivity
    • Weaponized agents may be easily spread
    • Clinical symptoms days to weeks after release
  • Low Visibility
  • Ease and Stealth of Delivery
    • Remote, delayed, undetectable release
    • Difficult/impossible to trace origin of agent
bioterrorism basics3
Bioterrorism Basics

Routes of Delivery for Biological Agents

Aerosol is most likely method of dissemination

Easy, silent dispersal

Maximum number of victims exposed

Inhalation is most efficient and contagious route of infection

Food/Water-borne dispersal less likely

Less stable, ineffective for some agents

Inefficient compared to aerosol

agents of bioterrorism
Agents of Bioterrorism

Bacterial Agents

Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)

Yersinia pestis (Plague)

Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)

Brucella spp. (Brucellosis)

Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever)

Burkholderia mallei (Glanders)

Vibrio cholerae (Cholera)

agents of bioterrorism1
Agents of Bioterrorism

Viral Agents

Variola virus (Smallpox)

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEE)

Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Ebola, Marburg, Lassa Fever, Argentine and Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses, Hantavirus, Congo-Crimean Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, Dengue Virus

agents of bioterrorism2
Agents of Bioterrorism

Biological Toxins

Botulinum Toxins

Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B


Mycotoxins (T2)

bioterrorism basics4
Bioterrorism Basics

Events Suggesting the Release of a Bioweapon

  • Multiple people ill at the same time (epidemic)
  • Previously healthy persons affected
  • High morbidity and mortality among affected individuals
  • Identification of diseases and pathogens unusual to a particular region
  • Recent terrorist claims or activity
  • Unexplained epizootic of sick or dead animals
bioterrorism basics5
Bioterrorism Basics

Events Suggesting the Release of a Bioweapon

  • Severe respiratory disease in a healthy host
  • An epidemic curve rising and falling rapidly
  • Increase in fever, respiratory, and GI symptoms
  • Lower attacks rates in people working indoors vs. outdoors
  • Seasonal disease during a different time of year
  • Known pathogen with unusual antimicrobial resistance pattern
  • Genetically-identical pathogen in different areas
bioterrorism basics6
Bioterrorism Basics

What Can We Do As Medical Professionals?

  • Maintain a high index of suspicion by including biological agents in differential diagnoses
  • Learn to recognize historical and physical examination findings suggestive of bioweapon exposure
  • Stay informed of local, regional and national epidemiologic trends
  • Be knowledgeable about treatment and prophylaxis of patients exposed to biological agents
  • Know whom to report suspected biological agent exposures and illnesses to (Police, State Intelligence agency, Infectious Disease Specialists, Local and State Health Officials)
is this something new
Is this something new?
  • 14th Century – Kaffa
    • City on Crimean Peninsula
  • Hurled plague infested corpses over walls of city to infest it
  • 1346 – Tatar army hurls its plague ridden dead over the walls of the city

Phillip L. Coule, M.D.

is this something new1
Is this something new?
  • 18th Century French and Indian War
    • British Officers gave blankets from smallpox victims to Indians aligned with French
    • Caused an epidemic in tribes
    • Effective means of incapacitating group

Phillip L. Coule, M.D.

reported cases of bioterrorism
World war II - Polish resistance organizations used biological agents against German forces

1952 - Mau Mau, an independence movement in Kenya , used a plant toxin to poison livestock.

1966 - Dr.Mitsuru Suzuki a Japanese physician, infected healthcare providers and patients with Salmonella typhi

1981 - Dark harvest group got anthrax contaminated soil from Gruinard Island and damped it on Porton Down.

1984 - Rajneeshees in Portland, Oregon(USA)used Salmonella typhimurium to contaminate restaurant salad bars.

1995 - AUM Shinrikyo used sarin nerve gas in the Tokyo subway in Japan

2001 - Anthrax contaminated s mail sent to various people in USA.

Reported Cases of Bioterrorism

Fred T Muwanga MD Msc

biological terrorism a new trend
Biological Terrorism - A New Trend?
  • 1978: Bulgarian exile injected with ricin in London
  • 1979: Sverdlovosk, USSR – accidental anthrax released – 40 fatalities
  • 1984: Oregon, Salmonella – Rajneeshee cult
  • 1991: Minnesota, ricin toxin
  • 1994: Tokyo, Sarin and biological attacks
  • 1995: Arkansas, ricin toxin
  • 1995: Indiana, Y. pestis purchase
  • 1997: Washington DC, ‘Anthrax/plague’ hoax
  • 1998: Nevada , nonlethal strain of B. anthracis
  • 1998-9: Multiple ‘Anthrax’ hoaxes
  • 2001: Anthrax Outbreak USA


Number of Cases

Number of deaths

Polish Resistance

Not reported

200 Germans



Not reported

33 head of cattle

Dark Harvest





no deaths

(45 hospitalised)



5500 ( 641 seen at

106 hospitalised at

SLIH* on day 1 &

SLIH. 12 deaths (2

349 following week)





4 deaths



4 deaths

Fred T Muwanga MD Msc

motive for bioterrorism
Motive for bioterrorism



Polish resistance

Resistance against foreign occupation



Resistance against colonialism

Dark Harvest

Send a political message


Win a local election by incapacitating the


Rajneeshee voters



Seize control of Japan through mass

murder, causing fear and apprehension


Revenge for unfair treatment he received

at the medical training

Anthrax (USA)

Inculcate fear

Fred T Muwanga MD Msc

lessons learnt
Motives for bioterrorism vary and could include:

- murder(Aum Shrinkyo)

- gaining political mileage (Mau Mau and Dark harvest)

- desire for revenge (Dr.Suzuki)

- Cause fear (Anthrax cases)

- Incapacitation (Rajneeshes)

- anti-agriculture (Mau Mau)

Terrorists do not usually announce their intent

secondary contamination can occur (SLIH workers)

There are various methods of dissemination:

Direct application (Dr.Suzuki)

Food or water contamination (Rajneeshes)

Aerosol contamination (Aum Shrinkyo and anthrax cases)

The effects of bioterrorism can be immediate(illness and death) or long term (Post-stress disorder)

Lessons learnt

Fred T Muwanga MD Msc

responses to bioterrorism
Responses to Bioterrorism
  • Early detection of active and potential cases
  • Emergency measures to save lives
  • Prevention and management of secondary contamination

Anatomy of a Bioterrorist Attack

Terrorism takes much

Time and planning


5 years

Execution 1 day

Diagnosed case 3 days

First Death

Multiple deaths