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CARDIODYNAMICS. KEY. EDV = End-diastolic volume. ESV = End-systolic volume. Stroke volume. 120. D. ESV. 80. C. One cardiac cycle. Left ventricular pressure (mm Hg). 40. EDV. B. A. 0. 65. 100. 135. Left ventricular volume ( mL ). Cardiac Cycle.

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cardiac cycle

KEY

EDV = End-diastolic volume

ESV = End-systolic volume

Stroke volume

120

D

ESV

80

C

One

cardiac

cycle

Left ventricular pressure (mm Hg)

40

EDV

B

A

0

65

100

135

Left ventricular volume (mL)

Cardiac Cycle

Left ventricular pressure-volume changes during one cardiac cycle

Figure 14-25

cardiac cycle1

KEY

EDV = End-diastolic volume

ESV = End-systolic volume

120

80

Left ventricular pressure (mm Hg)

40

A

0

65

100

135

Left ventricular volume (mL)

Cardiac Cycle

Figure 14-25 (1 of 4)

cardiac cycle2

KEY

EDV = End-diastolic volume

ESV = End-systolic volume

120

80

Left ventricular pressure (mm Hg)

40

EDV

B

A

0

65

100

135

Left ventricular volume (mL)

Cardiac Cycle

Figure 14-25 (2 of 4)

cardiac cycle3

KEY

EDV = End-diastolic volume

ESV = End-systolic volume

120

80

C

Left ventricular pressure (mm Hg)

40

EDV

B

A

0

65

100

135

Left ventricular volume (mL)

Cardiac Cycle

Figure 14-25 (3 of 4)

cardiac cycle4

KEY

EDV = End-diastolic volume

ESV = End-systolic volume

Stroke volume

120

D

ESV

80

C

One

cardiac

cycle

Left ventricular pressure (mm Hg)

40

EDV

B

A

0

100

65

135

Left ventricular volume (mL)

Cardiac Cycle

Figure 14-25 (4 of 4)

stroke volume and cardiac output
Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output
  • Stroke volume
    • Amount of blood pumped by one ventricle during a contraction
    • EDV – ESV = stroke volume.(135 mL - 65 mL = 70 mL)
  • Cardiac output(Cardiac Output Is a Measure of Cardiac Performance)
    • Volume of blood pumped by one ventricle in a given period of time
    • CO = HR  SV
  • CO = 72 beats/min x 70 mL/beat
    • = 5040 mL/min (or approx. 5/L min)
    • Average = 5 L/min
slide9

Ejection Fraction – is the fraction of the end-diastolic volume that is ejected with each beat, that is, it is stroke volume (SV) divided by end-diastolic volume (EDV),

is a commonly used measure of cardiac performance.

stroke volume / end diastole volume X 100%, normal range, 55-65%.

factors affecting heart rate
Factors Affecting Heart rate

1. Autonomic innervation

  • Sympathetic stimulus increases heart rate Ex. During fight or flight response
  • Parasympathetic stimulation decreases heart rate. Ex. Relaxation techniques

2. Hormones

    • Epinephrine : Increases heart rate

Tachycardia= Resting HR> 100 beats/min

Bradycardia=Resting HR<60 beats/min

physiology

stroke volume
Stroke Volume
  • Force of contraction
    • Stroke volume
    • Affected by length of muscle fiber and contractility of heart
  • Frank-Starling law
    • Stroke volume increase as EDV increases
  • EDV determined by venous return
    • Skeletal muscle pump
    • Respiratory pump
    • Sympathetic innervation
stroke volume1
Stroke Volume

Length-force relationships in intact heart: a Starling curve

Figure 14-28