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Prefixes/Review/Grammar. SAT Prep 3-13-08. Prefixes. Bel/Bell- War Rebel, Belligerent Bi- Twice, Doubly Binoculars, Biennial, Bigamy Bri/Brev- Brief, Short Abbreviate. Prefixes. Cad/Cid- To fall, to happen by chance Accident, Cadence Cand- To Burn Incandescent

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prefixes
Prefixes
  • Bel/Bell- War
    • Rebel, Belligerent
  • Bi- Twice, Doubly
    • Binoculars, Biennial, Bigamy
  • Bri/Brev- Brief, Short
    • Abbreviate
prefixes1
Prefixes
  • Cad/Cid- To fall, to happen by chance
    • Accident, Cadence
  • Cand- To Burn
    • Incandescent
  • Cant/Cent/Chant- to sing
    • Chant, Enchant
more commonly confused words
More Commonly Confused Words
  • Adopted- Adoptive
  • Adverse- Averse
  • Ambiguous-Ambivalent
  • Amoral- Immoral
  • Appraise- Apprise
  • Augur- Auger
  • Censure- Censor
  • Climactic-Climatic
homework
Homework
  • Define each of the words above and use them in a sentence.
slide6
Subject/Verb Agreement
    • This is probably the easiest question to get correct.
    • In many cases, people get confused as to when to add an “s” to the end of the main verb.
      • I.E. Say or says? When do you use either one?
slide7
ISE
  • 3rd person singular, add “s” to the verb
    • He eats pizza.
    • The dog runs everyday.
    • Ben poos every morning.
    • Terrance, the acclaimed songwriter, says that he doesn't like opera.
  • 3rd person singular includes subjective pronouns like (He/She/It), names, or groups
slide8
3rd person singular includes subjective pronouns like (He/She/It/They), names, or groups
  • Some subjects sounds plural but are really singular
    • Everyone/Everybody
    • Nobody
    • Everything/Altogether
    • Whoever/Whatever/Whenever
    • Committee/Board of Directors/Congress/Chamber of Deputies (etc.)
slide9
Here are more examples of singular indefinite pronouns:
  • one anyone everyone no one someone
  • anybody everybody nobody somebody
  • everything something
  • any each either neither none
slide10
ISE
  • Conjunctions can get difficult as well:
    • John AND I see Mary. (AND is plural)
    • Either John OR Bob dates Mary (OR is singular)
    • Either John OR I date Mary (Even though OR is singular, you must go with the conjugation of the word closest to the verb, which is I DATE)
    • Neither John NOR I date Mary (Same rule as above)
    • Both John AND I date Mary. (Same as AND)
pronoun antecedent agreement
Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement
  • What are pronouns?
    • Subject- I, You, He/She/It, We, You, They, Who
    • Object- Me, You, Him/Her/It, Us, You, Them, Whom
  • What are antecedents?
    • Specific nouns
      • Like names, places, etc
slide12
Why is it important to memorize subject/object pronouns for ISE?
    • What this means is that "he" is a pronoun that replaces the subject of the sentence while "him" replaces a direct or indirect object in the sentence.
pronoun antecedent agreements
Pronoun/Antecedent Agreements
  • Ambiguous Questions
    • William raced Harry and he was clearly the winner.
      • Whenever a sentence is not clear, most likely it is wrong.
  • Comparison with pronouns
    • I am a better writer than she.
      • Make sure that the pronouns are the same when comparing.
verb tenses
Verb Tenses
  • Conjugation Errors
    • I go to the pool
    • I goes to the pool
    • I lay down and sleep every night
    • I lie down and sleep every night
      • Since you are doing the action “every night” you have to change the verb to present tense.
        • http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/egw/verbs.htm
verb tenses1
Verb Tenses
  • Tense Errors
    • You should also make sure that the tense of a verb being used matches the context.
      • Yesterday I go to the beach.
      • Last Monday I will have bought at least four bushels of corn.
adjectives
Adjectives
  • When comparing two items, must add “er” to the adjective
    • Yesterday is hotter than today
    • This laptop is more expensive than that laptop.
  • When comparing three or more, must as “est” to the adjective
    • Today is the hottest day of the month.
    • This is the most expensive laptop in the store.
adverbs
Adverbs
  • Adverbs describe verbs and other adjectives.
    • Even a person who drives carefully cannot operate a motor vehicle when he is under the influence of alcohol.
    • He slowly walked to the classroom.
  • The College Board will not ask you what an adverb is. Rather, it will ask you questions in which it mixes up adverbs and adjectives.
verbs
Verbs
  • Three types of verbs
    • Infinitive- to+verb
      • form of a verb that can be used to replace a noun, adjective, or adverb
    • Gerund- verb+ing
      • Present progressive form of a verb that can be used to replace a noun.
    • Participle
      • Present progressive or perfect/past ("-ed" or "-ing") form of a verb that replaces an adjective.
        • Panting, I caught my breath
verbals
Verbals
  • You should know how they are correctly applied to a sentence.
    • He said that I should really start to instruct the kids, including to teach them reading.
word choice
Word Choice
  • Sometimes during the SAT, you will face a sentence that sounds like these
    • I cannot except any kind of personal check.
    • There are many affects of global warming that are starting to show up.
commonly mistaken word pairs
Commonly Mistaken Word-Pairs
  • Write/right
  • Affect/effect
  • Infamous/famous
  • Conscience/Conscious
  • Principal/Principle
  • It's/Its (The word it's is a contraction for "it is")
  • Contraction/Contradiction
parallelism
Parallelism
  • Sometimes you might come across sentences like these:
    • I like to eat, play volleyball, surf, and also I can sing.
    • Reading is my favorite hobby even though to play baseball is America's.
    • Doesn't he understand that knowing how to throw, catch, and how to tackle are fundamentals of football?
parallelism1
Parallelism
  • What is parallelism?
    • The structure of one part of a sentence should match the structure of the others.
  • The SAT's will be littered tremendously with these types of errors, so have your eyes aware for this.
miscellaneous
Miscellaneous
  • Speaking Errors
    • Sometimes we use incorrect grammar when we speak. This seeps into our understanding of grammar. Here are some speaking errors you should be aware of
      • I ain’t going to listen to her anymore. (I am not going to listen to her anymore.)‏
      • He use to be my friend. (He used to be my friend.)‏
      • Irregardless of your opinion on abortion, you must admit that there are many perspectives in the debate. (Regardless of your position…)‏
      • I should of taken those groceries out. (I should have taken those groceries out.)‏
      • You aren’t suppose to mess with her. (You aren’t supposed to mess with her.)
miscellaneous1
Miscellaneous
  • Double Negatives
    • Two negatives cannot be next to each other
      • Haven't never
      • Couldn't never
      • Couldn't hardly
      • Can't barely
    • Could be an outright negative or a word that has a negative connotation. Be aware!
improving sentences
Improving Sentences
  • The next portion of the Writing Section is called Improving Sentences.
  • This is a bit more difficult because you are called to not only identify the mistake, but also to correct it
improving sentences1
Improving Sentences
  • You are looking for the most clear (not confusing) and the most concise (straight to the point, not to many changes) answer possible.
slide28
IS
  • I firmly disagree with the idea, which we may disobey perceived unjust laws.
  • A. disagree with the idea, which we may disobey
  • B. disagree with the idea that we may disobey
  • C. disagree that we can't obey
  • D. agree that we do have to obey
  • E. disagree with our obedience not being required
slide29
I firmly disagree with the idea, which we may disobey perceived unjust laws.
  • A. disagree with the idea, which we may disobey
  • B. disagree with the idea that we may disobey
  • C. disagree that we can't obey
  • D. agree that we do have to obey
  • E. disagree with our obedience not being required
slide30
IS
  • Most common errors found in IS are:
    • Parallelism
    • Modifiers
      • "The siren blowing, James barely avoided the coming train." Correct: "James barely avoided the coming train with the siren blowing."
    • Compound Structures
      • The use of and, or, and nor should be appropriate
is modifiers
IS (Modifiers)‏
  • What are modifiers?
    • Modifiers are words that are used to describe other words (i.e. Adjectives and adverbs)‏
      • Running towards the train, I panted for breath.
        • Identify the modifier and what the modifier is modifying.
modifiers
Modifiers
  • Hopefully, we will have better luck this year.
  • Specifically, what is it that you want?
  • The man, seeing that I would not give him any change, walked away angrily.
modifiers1
Modifiers
  • 1. What does the modifier modify?
  • 2. Is the modified word in the correct place?
  • 3. Does the sentence make logical and grammatical sense with the modifier in place?
modifiers2
Modifiers
  • What is wrong with these sentences?
    • Speeding down the highway, I watched the car from my office.
    • Being at a very low price, I bought the new magazine.
    • I paid for the new car with a credit card.
clear and concise
Clear and Concise
  • Here are some following clues to eliminating or finding the correct answer for the IS portion
clear and concise1
Clear and Concise
  • Avoid “Being” and Gerunds
  • Look for run-on sentences
    • If two independent clauses (with two subjects and verbs) are not connected by a semicolon (";") or a coordinating conjunction (and/but/for/or/nor/not/yet/so), the union of them is considered a "run on sentence."
clear and concise2
Clear and Concise
  • Look for Fragments
    • You can spot a fragment as any dependent clause without an independent clause, or any sentence without a subject and a predicate.
  • And vs That
    • Abby bought a new dog and it has brown hair.
      • What would be a better way to write this sentence?