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Chapter 16 Component based embedded systems. Overview. Introduction Component technology in embedded systems Case study – ABB’s Field Devices Prerequisites for effective development of Component-based embedded systems Summary. Where is the problem?.

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chapter 16 component based embedded systems

Chapter 16Component based embedded systems

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

overview
Overview
  • Introduction
  • Component technology in embedded systems
  • Case study – ABB’s Field Devices
  • Prerequisites for effective development of Component-based embedded systems
  • Summary

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

where is the problem
Where is the problem?
  • Huge market arises for embedded devices, and thus for software for them
  • Similar basic functionalities are repeated
  • New functionalities are added constantly
  • Shorter development time is required

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

introduction
Introduction

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

embedded vs component based
Monolithic approach requires re-implementing the functionalities

Component based SE provides a mean to reuse the functionalities

Embedded vs. Component-based

Component based SE can provide a framework instead of technology

Embedded devices are too small for component off-the-shelf technologies

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

component technology in embedded world
Component technology in embedded world
  • Contractually specified interfaces
  • Component as a unit of composition and independent deployment
  • Explicit context dependencies
  • Component granularity
  • Reuse
  • Location transparency
  • Component wiring
  • Portability, platform independence

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

contractually specified interfaces
Contractually specified interfaces
  • State-of-the-art technologies approach:

Interfaces as pure collection of methods.

  • Embedded environment constraint:
    • Non-functional specifications are equally important part of the contract

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

interfaces ii
Interfaces II
  • Component interfaces support:
    • Late binding,
    • Polymorphism,
    • Semantic specification
      • Pre conditions,
      • Post conditions,
      • Invariants

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

unit of composition and independent deployment
Run-time composition

Component model,

Run-time environment,

Dynamic communication,

Design-time composition

Capable of generating monolithic firmware from component-based design,

Optimization

Unit of composition and independent deployment

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

explicit context dependencies
Explicit context dependencies

What is a context in embedded world?

  • Other components and interfaces
  • Run-time environment
    • CPU,
    • RTOS,
    • Component implementation language,
    • Resource constraints

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

component granularity
Coarse-grained components,

Too heavy bag of unnecessary functionality,

Too much resources used,

Fine-grained components,

Light, unneeded functionality reduced,

Scarcer uses of resources,

Greater communication overhead,

Component granularity

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

reuse
Reuse
  • Black-box reuse
    • From component’s user point of view,
  • White-box reuse
    • From composition environment point of view
  • Gray-box reuse (composition environment)
    • If clear conventions for knowledge about implementation are introduced

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

architecture and frameworks
Architecture and frameworks

Defining components alone will not lead to reuse

  • Common architecture for family of embedded devices
  • Framework for development

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

portability platform independence
Portability, Platform independence
  • Source level portability suffices,
    • Design-time composition,
    • Run-time environment restrictions
  • Source level portability requires:
    • Agreement on implementation language,
    • Agreement on available libraries,
    • Providing proper abstractions (i.e. RTOS API)

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

other issues
Other issues
  • Location transparency
    • For embedded devices there is a single location,
  • Component wiring
    • Needed for flexible composition of software,
    • Optimizes component interaction,
    • Component ”glue code” should be in implementation language

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

case study abb s field devices
Case study – ABB’s Field devices
  • Synchronous approach
  • Architecture of the field devices
  • Dynamic behavior
  • Inter-component communication

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

synchronous approach
Synchronous approach

Synchronous languages have been developed to simplify the programming of reactive systems

  • Provide the mean to handle concurrency, determinism, response time control
  • Based on synchrony hypothesis

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

architecture of the field device
Architecture of the field device

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

dynamic behavior

manipulatedvariable

(3)

a)

setpoint

ControlledSystem

Controller(2)

actual

value

(1)

speed

Tv,Tv,kp

Setpoint

error

out

b)

Signalbus

out

speed

Actuator(3)

Sensors(1)

PID (2)

Dynamic behavior

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

inter component communication
Inter-component communication
  • Based on Signal Bus
  • Signal Bus communication is maintained by Object Manager
  • Communication itself is based on signals
    • One source per signal

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

types of interfaces

UserInterface

(1)

(4)

(2)

CommunicationLink

Real-timeSystem

ProcessInterface

(3)

Mass storageInterface

Types of Interfaces

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

prerequisites for effective development
Prerequisites for effective development
  • Component model
    • Additionally must address non functional properties,
    • Allow for code generation,
    • Allow for efficient functional interfaces,
    • Allow for specification of architectural styles that describe component connections and containment relations,

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

framework

Component

Model

Component-based

Architecture for

field devices

Component

Composition

Run-time

Repository

environment

environment

Framework

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

prerequisites ii
Prerequisites II
  • Component-based architecture for field devices
    • Framework,
    • Compile time optimizations,
    • Field-bus architecture,
  • Repository
    • Storage and retrieval of components,
    • Storage of non-functional properties, implementation, support and test scripts,
    • Versioning

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

prerequisites iii
Prerequisites III
  • Composition environment
    • Constraint verification,
    • Component adaptation and code generation,
    • Composition techniques,
    • Definition of composition rules

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

prerequisites iv
Prerequisites IV
  • Run-time environment
    • Provide efficient implementation model,
    • Address embedded systems constraints,
    • Allow for compilation to optimized firmware thus allowing for no extra run-time environment that RTOS
    • Allow for hardware and RTOS independent implementation of components

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

case study summary
Case study summary
  • Architecture of the field device
  • Prerequisites for effective development
  • Framework

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems

presentation summary
Presentation summary
  • Introduction
  • Component technology in embedded systems
  • Case study – ABB’s Field Devices
  • Prerequisites for effective development of Component-based embedded systems
  • Summary

Building Reliable Component-based SystemsChapter 16 - Component based embedded systems