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INDOOR AIR QUALITY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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INDOOR AIR QUALITY
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  1. INDOOR AIR QUALITY PRESENTED BY KENNETH F. ROBERTS, CIH, CSP

  2. UNDERSTANDING IAQ • HEALTH EFFECTS • CAUSATIVE AGENTS • SOURCES • CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • LEGISLATION

  3. HEALTH EFFECTS

  4. HEALTH EFFECTS SICK BUILDING SYNDROME (SBS) VS BUILDING RELATED ILLNESS (BRI)

  5. HEALTH EFFECTS • SICK BUILDING SYNDROME • A PERSISTENT SET OF SYMPTOMS IN > 20% • CAUSE(S) NOT RECOGNIZABLE • COMPLAINTS/SYMPTOMS RELIEVED AFTER EXITING BUILDING

  6. HEALTH EFFECTS • SICK BUILDING SYNDROME (SBS) • EYE, NOSE, OR THROAT IRRITATION • HEADACHES • FATIGUE • REDUCED MENTATION • IRRITABILITY

  7. HEALTH EFFECTS • SICK BUILDING SYNDROME (SBS) • DRY SKIN • NASAL CONGESTION • DIFFICULTY BREATHING • NOSE BLEEDS • NAUSEA

  8. HEALTH EFFECTS • BUILDING RELATED ILLNESS • CLINICALLY RECOGNIZED DISEASE • EXPOSURE TO INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS • RECOGNIZABLE CAUSES

  9. HEALTH EFFECTS • BUILDING RELATED ILLNESS (BRI) • PONTIAC FEVER - LEGIONELLA spp. • LEGIONNAIRE’S DISEASE • HYPERSENSITIVITY PNEUMONITIS • HUMIDIFIER FEVER

  10. HEALTH EFFECTS • BUILDING RELATED ILLNESS (BRI) • ASTHMA • ALLERGY • RESPIRATORY DISEASE • CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD)

  11. CAUSATIVE AGENTS

  12. CAUSATIVE AGENTS • INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANT TYPES • COMBUSTION PRODUCTS • VOLATILE CHEMICALS & MIXTURES • RESPIRABLE PARTICULATES • RESPIRATORY PRODUCTS • BIOLOGICS & BIOAEROSOLS • RADIONUCLIDES • ODORS

  13. CAUSATIVE AGENTS • COMBUSTION PRODUCTS • CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) • OXIDES OF NITROGEN (NOX) • OXIDES OF SULFUR (SOX) • CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) • POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBON’S (PAH) • TOBACCO SMOKE COMPONENTS

  14. CAUSATIVE AGENTS • VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS • ALCOHOLS - ISOPROPANOL • ALDEHYDES - FORMALDEHYDE • ALIPHATICS - CYCLOHEXANE • AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS - 4PC • ESTERS - ETHYL ACETATE • HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS - TCE

  15. CAUSATIVE AGENTS • RESPIRABLE PARTICULATES • ASBESTOS • CHRYSOTILE • AMOSITE • CROCIDOLITE • FIBERGLASS • INORGANIC DUSTS (MINERAL)

  16. CAUSATIVE AGENTS • RESPIRABLE PARTICULATES • METALLIC DUSTS • LEAD • ORGANIC DUSTS • PAPER DUSTS • POLLEN

  17. CAUSATIVE AGENTS • RESPIRATORY PRODUCTS • WATER VAPOR • CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) • ETIOLOGICAL AGENTS • TOBACCO SMOKE COMPONENTS

  18. CAUSATIVE AGENTS • BIOLOGICS & BIOAEROSOLS • MOLDS & FUNGI • BACTERIA • PROTOZOA • VIRUSES

  19. CAUSATIVE AGENTS • RADIONUCLIDES • RADON • RADON PROGENY (DAUGHTERS)

  20. CAUSATIVE AGENTS • ODORS • ODORS ASSOCIATED WITH ANY INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANT TYPE • INDEPENDENTLY • IN COMBINATION

  21. SOURCES

  22. SOURCES • COMBUSTION PRODUCTS • KEROSENE HEATERS • LOADING DOCKS • WOOD STOVES/UNVENTED GAS STOVES • NEARBY TRAFFIC

  23. SOURCES • VOLATILE CHEMICALS & MIXTURES • ADHESIVES & CAULKING COMPOUNDS • CARPETING & DRAPERY • PARTICLE BOARD

  24. SOURCES • VOLATILE CHEMICALS & MIXTURES • FLOOR & WALL COVERINGS • PAINTS, VARNISHES AND STAINS • UPHOLSTERY

  25. SOURCES • RESPIRABLE PARTICULATES • ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE (ETS) • CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS • OUTDOOR AIR • PLANTS & PLANT PARTS • PRODUCTION PROCESSES

  26. SOURCES • PARTICULATE PHASE OF CIGARETTE SMOKE 4-AMINOBIPHENYL NICKEL ANATABINE NICOTINE ANILINE PHENOL BENZ[A]ANTHRACENE POLONIUM-210 BENZ[A]PYRENE QUINOLINE BENZOIC ACID SUCCINIC ACID BUTYROLACTONE 2-TOLUIDINE NITROSODIETHANOLAMINE CADMIUM

  27. SOURCES • VAPOR PHASE OF CIGARETTE SMOKE HYDROGEN CYANIDE ACETALDEHYDE ACETONE ACROLEIN 1,3-BUTADIENE BENZENE CARBON MONOXIDE FORMALDEHYDE DIMETHYLAMINE HYDRAZINE CARBONYL SULFIDE ETHANE METHYL CHLORIDE PYRIDINE AMMONIA FORMIC ACID

  28. SOURCES • RESPIRATORY PRODUCTS • PEOPLE • PLANTS

  29. SOURCES • BIOLOGICS & BIOAEROSOLS • HVAC SYSTEMS • COOLING TOWERS • HUMANS/ANIMALS • STAGNANT WATER RESERVOIRS • HUMIDIFIERS

  30. SOURCES • RADIONUCLIDES (RADON - 222Rn) • SOIL • WATER • BUILDING MATERIALS • NATURAL GAS

  31. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES

  32. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • PREVENTING IAQ PROBLEMS • SOURCES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING • EQUIPMENT • HUMAN ACTIVITIES • BUILDING COMPONENTS & FURNISHINGS • OTHER SOURCES • VENTILATION TO MEET OCCUPANT NEEDS • OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

  33. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • SOURCES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING • CONTAMINATED OUTDOOR AIR • POLLEN, DUST, FUNGI • INDUSTRIAL POLLUTANTS • GENERAL VEHICLE EXHAUST

  34. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • SOURCES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING • EMISSIONS FROM NEARBY SOURCES • PARKING LOTS/GARAGES • LOADING DOCKS/DUMPSTERS • RE-ENTRAINED BUILDING EXHAUST • LOCATION OF SUPPLY INTAKES

  35. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • SOURCES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING • SOIL GAS • RADON • UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (LEAKING) • LANDFILL • PESTICIDE APPLICATION

  36. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • SOURCES OUTSIDE THE BUILDING • STANDING WATER • ROOFTOPS • CRAWLSPACES

  37. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • EQUIPMENT • HVAC SYSTEM • DUST/DIRT/GROWTH IN DUCTS • GROWTH IN DRIP PANS • IMPROPER USE OF BIOCIDES • IMPROPER VENTING

  38. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • EQUIPMENT • NON-HVAC EQUIPMENT • EMISSIONS FROM OFFICE EQUIPMENT • SUPPLIES (SOLVENTS, TONERS, ETC.) • EMISSIONS FROM LABS, CLEANING • OTHER MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

  39. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • HUMAN ACTIVITIES • PERSONAL ACTIVIITES • SMOKING • COOKING • PERSONAL HYGIENE (BODY ODORS) • COSMETIC ODORS

  40. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • HUMAN ACTIVITIES • HOUSEKEEPING ACTIVIITES • CLEANING MATERIALS • CLEANING PROCEDURES • STORED SUPPLIES & TRASH • DEODORIZERS & FRAGRANCES

  41. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • HUMAN ACTIVITIES • MAINTENANCE ACTIVIITES • COOLING TOWERS • PAINTS, CAULKS, ETC. • PEST CONTROL • STORED SUPPLIES

  42. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • BUILDING COMPONENTS & FURNISHINGS • LOCATIONS THAT COLLECT DUST • DAMAGED MATERIALS • UNSANITARY CONDITIONS

  43. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • BUILDING COMPONENTS & FURNISHINGS • WATER DAMAGE • DRY TRAPS - SEWER GAS • CHEMICAL RELEASE OR OFF-GASING

  44. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • OTHER SOURCES • ACCIDENTAL EVENTS • SPILLS • FLOODING • FIRE DAMAGE (PCB’S)

  45. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • OTHER SOURCES • SPECIAL USE AREAS • SMOKING LOUNGES • LABORATORIES • PRINT SHOPS • ART ROOMS - GRAPHIC DESIGN

  46. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • OTHER SOURCES • SPECIAL USE AREAS • EXERCISE ROOMS • BEAUTY SALONS • FOOD PREPARATION AREAS

  47. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • OTHER SOURCES • REDECORATING/REMODELING/REPAIR • NEW FURNISHINGS • DUST & FIBERS FROM DEMOLITION • ODORS & VOC’S (PAINT, ETC.) • MICROBIOLOGICALS FROM DEMOLITION

  48. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • VENTILATION TO MEET OCCUPANT NEEDS • ASHRAE STANDARDS (ASHRAE 62-1989) • TEMPERATURE • RELATIVE HUMIDITY • MINIMUM OUTDOOR AIR REQUIREMENTS • CO2 LEVELS BELOW 1000 PPM

  49. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • VENTILATION TO MEET OCCUPANT NEEDS • ENGINEERING CONTROLS • MODIFY VENTILATION SYSTEM • MODIFY PRESSURE RELATIONSHIPS • FILTERS

  50. CONTROL METHODOLOGIES • VENTILATION TO MEET OCCUPANT NEEDS • ENGINEERING CONTROLS • PRECIPITATORS • ION GENERATORS • HUMIDIFICATION SYSTEMS