coalitions and command and control in peace operations n.
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  2. PEACEKEEPING ARE COALITION OPERATIONS 31 Nations 46 12 20 39 47 9 39 Nations 62 Nations 58 31 55 54 31 24

  3. DEFINITIONS • Coalition • Ad hoc and situation specific • Temporary arrangements of expedience • Alliance • Formal arrangements • Enduring nature • Signed treaty

  4. HISTORICAL REFLECTIONS “If I must fight, let it be against a coalition” - Napoleon “There is only one thing worse than fighting with allies and that is fighting without them.” -- Winston Churchill

  5. Levels of Operations – both Peace and War Security Council Secretary General Strategic Secretariat Sets the Political goals, objectives and guidance and provides resources Head of Mission (HOM) Special Representative of Secretary General Operational Mission Headquarters/Staff Translates political and military guidance and uses resources provided in a series of campaigns that support achieving the political goals Force Commander, DSRSG HC, DSRSG RofL Chief Admin Officer Tactical Police Units Military Units Logistics Units Conducts specific operations and tasks in support of a planned campaign Regional Officials Other organizations

  6. WHO PROVIDES PEACEKEEPERS STRATEGIC DIRECTION? • UN Security Council • Other nations • Host nation • Friends of xx peacekeeping mission • Key negotiators to the peace agreement • Secretary General • Other key diplomats

  7. BENEFITS OF COALITIONS • Legitimacy • Greater resources • Synergy of effort • Greater flexibility • Moral & diplomatic support

  8. CHALLENGES FOR COALITIONS • Training Standards are different • Language/Culture • Officer and enlisted relations • Religious practices • Command and Control arrangements • National Policies

  9. PEACE OPERATIONS ARE COALITION OPERATIONS • Military component • Various national contingents • Political/diplomatic component • UN agencies, regional organizations • Humanitarian component • Other International Organizations (IOs), NGOs, other nations

  10. UN Mission Generic Organogram Chart from United Nations, Department of Peacekeeping Operations and Department of Field Support, “Mission Start-up Field Guide for Senior Mission Managers of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations,” February 2008

  11. Multi-Dimensional UN Peacekeeping Operations are “Coalition Operations” in the broadest Sense Military Component UN Programs and Agencies Police Component NGO’s National Donor Agencies Other Components -Human Rights -Electoral -Humanitarian Assistance Etc. Makes Authority, Command, Control, Coordination, Cooperation… in Coalition Peacekeeping Operations a difficult Challenge!

  12. COMMAND and CONTROLin Peace Operations (plus COORDINATION and COOPERATION)

  13. Principles of War & Operational Art • U.S. Principles of War • Mass • Objective • Offensive • Security • Economy of force • Maneuver • Unity of Command • Surprise • Simplicity • Legitimacy • Perseverance • Restraint • U.S. Operational Functions • Intelligence • Command and Control • Fires • Maneuver and movement • Protection • Logistics Both lists from U.S. Joint Publication 3-0, Operations

  14. COALITIONMILITARYOPERATIONS Experience in Multinational Coalition Operations shows that: • Integrating military forces from different nations is complex and demanding on leaders: • Requires an understanding of coalition operations and skill on the part of all military commanders, national military contingent seniors and other component leaders • An awareness of the unique aspects of military coalition operations enables commanders and leaders to plan intelligently to avoid or properly deal with problems that experience shows will arise in any and all coalition operations Creating this awareness, sensitivity and understanding among commanders and key staff is essential to preparing for coalition operations

  15. HISTORICAL MODELS OF COALITION C2 • Parallel command • Lead Nation • Integrated command • Most UN peacekeeping missions are integrated

  16. COMMAND • The Authority a Commander in the Military Service lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment • Includes: • authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources • for planning employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces to accomplish assigned missions. • responsible for health, welfare, morale and discipline of assigned personnel • Command has a legal status and denotes functional and knowledgeable exercise of military/police authority to attain military/police objectives or goals

  17. COMMAND AND CONTROL • The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned forces in accomplishment of mission. • Command and Control functions are performed: • by a commander in planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces in the accomplishment of the mission • through an arrangement of personnel, equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed. The Commander must establish the system he will use for “Command and Control” based on his assessment of the capabilities and needs of his “Command”

  18. COMMAND PHILOSOPHY Centralized control Decentralized control Centralized control and decentralized execution

  19. TYPES OF COMMAND AND CONTROL in Multinational Operations There are advantages and disadvantages to each! Integrated command approach Parallel command approach Lead nation command approach

  20. Integrated Command From U.S. Joint Publication 3-16, Multinational Operations

  21. Parallel Command From U.S. Joint Publication 3-16, Multinational Operations

  22. Lead Nation Command From U.S. Joint Publication 3-16, Multinational Operations

  23. EXAMPLES OF UN C2 UNMIK (1999-present) – Kosovo - Parallel Command Organization – UNMIK was UN, KFOR was NATO. NATO KFOR operated on integrated command structure UNAMID (2003-present)– African Union/United Nations Hybrid operation in Darfur (Sudan) Parallel Command Structure with UN and African Union both providing forces UNTAET (1999-2002) – East Timor. Initially a lead nation peacekeeping mission lead by Australia, followed by a UN integrated mission MONUSCO (1999-present) – Congo – a completely integrated command and control force – the largest in the UN!

  24. Categories of UN “Command” Authority in UN Peacekeeping Coalitions Key Terms and Concepts • Command ** • National Command ** • UN Operational Authority ** • UN Operational Control ** • UN Tactical Control • Administrative Control • Tasking Authority • Transfer of Authority ** separate slides to discuss

  25. UN OPERATIONAL CONTROL (UN OPCON) “The authority granted to a military commander in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations to direct forces assigned so that the commander may accomplish specific missions or tasks which are usually limited by function, time, or location (or a combination), to deploy units concerned and/or military personnel, and to retain or assign tactical control of those units/personnel.” Includes authority to assign tasks to contingent sub units as required by operational necessity Does not include responsibility for personnel administration

  26. NATIONAL COMMAND “Exercise of command by National Authorities over National Forces deployed in peace operations” NOTE: “Nations never cede full command authority over their deployed forces …except in very unusual circumstance”


  28. UN Peace Operation Organizational Structure Similar to the military integrated command structure JLOC: Joint Logistics Operations Center CDU: Conduct & Discipline Unit JMAC: Joint Mission Analysis Cell JOC: Joint Operations Center

  29. WORKING WITH OTHER UN AGENCIES AND NON-GOVERMENTAL AGENCIES • UN Staff work for the Special Representative of the Secretary General • UN Agencies (World Food Program, UNICEF, UNHCR) are independent organization who work for the UN SYG and their donors. The do take some direction from SRSG. • NGOs are independent agencies who only work for their own organizations and their donors. Success in working with these organizations is COOPERATION AND COORDINATION

  30. EFFECTIVE COMMAND AND CONTROL LEADERSHIP IS THE KEY! The commander must be able to understand and mesh national contingents’ capabilities, personal and professional habits, training backgrounds, relevant national characteristics and national goals The commander must clearly articulate mission’s intent, understand desired end-state, firmly establish appropriate rules of engagement, and implement procedures that ensure unity of effort within military component and synchronize military effort with efforts of other mission components to accomplish desired end state

  31. EFFECTIVE COALITION LEADERSHIP CONSIDERATIONS • Patience • Flexibility • Shared responsibility/vision • Develop trust • Fairness and equitability • Mission type orders • Listen • Transparency • Team building • Perseverance “Successful commanders in multinational environments focus on and inculcate a vision that infuses the whole coalition.” Larry Forster, “Coalition Leadership Imperatives” Military Review, Nov/Dec 2000

  32. CONSIDERATIONS FOR MULTINATIONAL FORCES TENETS of Multinational Ops • Respect • Rapport • Knowledge of Partners • Patience UNITY OF EFFORT IS # 1 PRIORITY FOR A COALITION OF THE WILLING From: U.S. Joint Pub 3-16, Multinational Ops

  33. I found it critical to establish and meet the needs and concerns of each troop contributing nation, to achieve understanding, congruence, frequently by give and take and vitally, good will and cooperation. Major General P.J. Cosgrove, Former commander of International Forces in East Timor 4 April 2000 Talk on Anzac Day at George Washington University

  34. LOGISTICS • Alliances are better equipped to handle logistical concerns, however, history has proven that coalitions of the willing are the normal approach. • Logistics in the UN system can be complicated. Ensure a proper MOU is created and all activities are covered. • BOTTOM LINE: Commanders must aware of the logistical arrangements for each member of the contingent….what the UN provides and what the nation provides in terms of logistical support.

  35. LIAISON TEAMS Are liaison teams necessary?… valuable? and how are they formed? • Liaison officer must be knowledgeable of all aspects of their unit’s capabilities and limitations • The best officers should be assigned to liaison teams • In multinational operations, liaison goes both ways • Liaison officers are the directed telescope of their commanders (Napoleon) • Liaison officers must be of sufficient rank to INFLUENCE THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS

  36. Preparing National Contingents for UN Peacekeeping Coalition Military Operations… • Make sure you understand the proposed Command Relationships • What Degree of Interoperability is Required? • What are the Logistical Support Requirements for different national contingents? • Understand the potential “Friction” Points in the coalition • Are ROE appropriate and understood?

  37. COMMAND AND CONTROL IN UN PEACEKEEPING BOTTOM LINE • Command and Control over various components of UN PKO is an exceptional challenge • For Military Component: • Military personnel remain members of national armed forces • Full Command never given to UN, only Operational Authority • Operational Authority exercised by UN in accordance with mandate and MOU