What is Cardiovascular Disease? A common term describing a group of diseases that cause a blockage of blood flow, affecting circulation in the heart, brain, eyes, kidneys, and legs.
Atherosclerosis • Build up of plaque inside arteries • Arteries become narrow • Blood flow through arteries limited • Less oxygen reaches body tissues
Coronary Artery Disease • Usually a result of “hardening of the arteries” or arteriosclerosis. • Can lead to: • Angina • Heart attack • Cardiomyopathy • Irregular heartbeats • Heart failure
Heart Failure Heart unable to pump sufficient blood to the body Likely to develop in people who have other types of heart disease
Stroke • Artery to the brain becomes blocked • Results in injury to the brain
Risk Factors for Heart Disease • Diet • Cholesterol • High Blood Pressure • Inactive Lifestyle • Smoking • Alcohol • Stress
Diet • An unhealthy diet high in fat and cholesterol increases risk • Make healthy food choices
Cholesterol High level is a major risk for coronary heart disease, heart attack, & stroke A total cholesterol of <200 mg/dL will lower your risk A fasting “lipoprotein profile” will tell you your numbers
Desirable Cholesterol Numbers Total: less that 200 mg/dL LDL: less than 130 mg/dL HDL: 40-60 mg/dL or greater Source: American Heart Association
Factors for High Cholesterol Diet high in fat and cholesterol Family history Excess weight Physical inactivity Age and gender
What Can You Do? Eat a diet low in fat and cholesterol Maintain a healthy weight Exercise
High Blood Pressure Makes heart work harder than normal Causes heart to enlarge and weaken Shows no specific warning signs (Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mmHg).
Factors for High Pressure • Family history • Ethnicity • Gender • Age • Heavy salt consumption • Obesity • Physical inactivity • Heavy alcohol consumption • Pregnancy • Oral contraceptives
What Can You Do? Eat lots of fruits, vegetables Choose fat-free & low-fat dairy products Reduce sodium Drink alcohol in moderation Maintain a healthy weight Stay physically active
Inactive Lifestyle Physical inactivity combined with overeating, excess weight, & high blood cholesterol raise your risk of heart disease.
What Can You Do? • American Heart Association recommends 30-60 minutes of physical activity on most days of the week • Exercise helps to control • Blood cholesterol • Diabetes (blood sugar) • Obesity (weight) • Blood pressure
Smoking Doubles your risk of heart attack Reduces oxygen in blood Damages blood vessel walls Contributes to high blood pressure Contributes to low levels of HDL cholesterol
What Can You Do? If you smoke, get the help you need & QUIT!
Weight • Excess body fat increases your risk for • High blood pressure • High blood cholesterol • High triglycerides • Diabetes • Heart disease
Your Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI values from 18.5 to 24.9 are healthy BMI of 25.0-29.9 – overweight BMI of 30.0 or greater – obese BMI of 40 or greater – extreme obesity
What Can You Do? If you are overweight, losing 10 to 20 pounds can help lower your heart disease risk. DIET Exercise
Stress Handling stress poorly increases your risk of heart disease.
What Can You Do? • Set realistic goals for yourself • Reject excessive demands on your time • Learn to cope • try relaxation • meditation • exercise • breathing techniques
Risk Factors You Can’t Control • Age • Gender • Men have greater risk beginning around age 45 • Women’s risk begins to increase at about age 55 • After menopause, more women die of heart attacks • Ethnicity • African Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, & Native Hawaiians have higher risk
Risk Factors You Can’t Control • Family History • If immediate family member had heart attack before age 65 • Diabetes • Greater chance of developing atherosclerosis • 80% of diabetics die from cardiovascular disease • Requires special precautions
Warning Signs For A Heart Attack • Uncomfortable chest pressure, squeezing or pain lasting for more than a few minutes • Pain that spreads to shoulders, neck, arms • Chest discomfort with • Lightheadedness • Sweating • Nausea • Fainting • Shortness of breath
Warning Signs For A Heart Attack • Women may experience more subtle signs • Angina – chest pain • Difficulty catching breath • Fatigue • Swelling - especially ankles & lower legs
Warning Signs for Stroke Sudden weakness in arm, hand, or leg Loss of feeling on one side of face or body Sudden trouble seeing with one or both eyes Loss of balance or difficulty walking Confusion or difficulty talking Sudden, severe headaches
Think! Think about your current activities and lifestyle choices. Imagine yourself in 10 to 20 years from a health perspective. What do you look like? What changes do you need to make?
References THANK YOU Lt. Col John Kruger SWR Safety Director • Bullock, Carol. Your heart a user’s guide. American Heart Association. 2002. • Anatomy of the human heart. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13 2005, from http://www.texasheartinstitute.org/anatomy2.html • Coronary heart disease explained. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2005, from Http://nhlbisupport.com/chd1/chdexp.htm • Chronic disease fact sheet. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2005,from http://www.health.ms.gov/msdhsite/index.cfm/43,116091,214,html • Heart and stroke facts. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.americanheart.org. • Springhouse Corporation Staff. (2005). Anatomy and physiology made incredibly easy. (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.