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THE RESEARCH PROCESS INTERNATIONALLY
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  1. THE RESEARCH PROCESS INTERNATIONALLY By Elisante Ole Gabriel (Tanzania) Chartered Marketer egabriel@edenconsult.net, www.olegabriel.com +255-784-455-499

  2. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH • a study conducted to assist decision-making in more • than one country • research that crosses national borders and involves • respondents and researchers from different countries • and cultures

  3. Challenges • overlooking cross-cultural market behaviour • employing standardized research methodologies • across the international markets • using English as a standard language for market • communication • inappropriate sample selection • misinterpretation of cross-country data • failure to use locals to conduct field surveys

  4. Cross-cultural marketing behaviour and research The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category from the other

  5. Comparison of cross-cultural behaviour • Power distance • the degree of inequality among the people that are viewed • equitably • Individualism vs. collectivism • the tendency of people to look after themselves and their • immediate family’s interests alone • Masculinity vs. femininity • masculine societies, the dominant values emphasize work • goals such as earnings, advancement, and success • feminine society are achievement of personal goals such as • quality of life, care for others, and friendly atmosphere • Uncertainty avoidance • lack of tolerance of ambiguity and the need for formal rules

  6. Comparison of cross-cultural behaviour • Cultural context • The context of a culture has crucial implications in communicating and interpreting verbal and non-verbal messages • Cultural homogeneity • homophilous culture: countries where people share the • same beliefs, language, and religion • heterophilous culture: countries that have a fair amount • of differentiation in language, beliefs, and religion

  7. Process Problem dentification Decide Research Methodology Workout Information Requirement Identify Sources of Information (Both Primary and Secondary) Prepare Research Design Collect Primary Information Analyse Information Evaluation and Interpretation

  8. International marketing research and marketing decisions • Marketing mix decision • product policy • Type of research • focus groups and qualitative research to generate ideas • for new product • survey research to evaluate new product ideas • concept tasting, test marketing • product benefit and attitude research • product formulation and feature testing

  9. International marketing research (contd) • Marketing mix decision • Pricing distribution • Type of research • pricing sensitivity studies • Marketing mix decision • Distribution • Type of research • survey of shopping patterns and behaviour • consumer attitudes toward different store types • survey of distributor attitudes and policies

  10. International marketing research (contd) • Marketing mix decision • Advertising • Type of research • advertising pre-testing • Marketing mix decision • Advertising post-testing, recall scores • Type of research • surveys of media habits

  11. International marketing research (contd) • Marketing mix decision • Sales Promotion • Type of research • surveys of response to alternative types of promotion • Marketing mix decision • Sales force • Type of research • tests of alternative sales presentations

  12. Emic vs. Etic dilemma EMIC Holds that attitudes, interests, and behaviour are unique to a culture and best understood in their own terms, and emphasizes studying the research problem in each country’s specific context ETIC Emphasizes identifying and assessing universal attitudinal and behavioural concepts and developing ‘pan-cultural’ measures

  13. Researching Global Markets Marketing Research: Building The Knowledge Base • Breadth and scope of international marketing research. • Greater uncertainties in global markets. • Marketing research defined : “Marketing Research is the function which links the consumers and customers to the organization through information; information used to identify and define marketing problems; generate, refine and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve our understanding of marketing as a process”

  14. Role of Marketing Research • Reduction of uncertainty and facilities management decision making Information for : • Planning (Market entry strategies) • Problem Solving • Control Nature of Marketing Research • Applied research • Cost-benefits assessment • Dynamic environment and need for frequent updates

  15. Stages in the Research Process Formulate Problem Determine Research Design Determine Data Collective Method Design Data Collection Forms Design Sample and Collect Data Analyze and Interpret the Data Prepare the Research Report

  16. Type of Data Needed for International Marketing Research • Secondary data • Internal • External • Published • Commercial Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary Data • Availability • Reliability • Compatibility of data • Validation of secondary data • Outdated

  17. Gathering Primary Data • Types of primary data • Socioeconomic / demographic data • Attitudes / Options • Awareness / knowledge • Intentions • Motivations • Behaviors • Qualitative (V.S) Quantitative • Surveys (V.S) Observations

  18. Survey Research • Personal interviews • Mail Surveys • Telephone interviews • Mall intercept interviews • Internet : new opportunity for data collection Observation • Human • Mechanical Devices

  19. Development of Survey Instrument • Structured (V.S) Unstructured • Disguised (V.S) Undisguised Qualitative Research • Disguised and Unstructured • Word Association • Sentence Completion • Story Telling • Focus Groups

  20. Sample Design and Issues • Non probability samples (Finding not generalizable) • Probability samples • Types of probability samples • Issues related to probability samples • Lack of sampling frame • Outdated sampling frame (Street and Telephone directories) • Validation of random samples

  21. Data analysis and inferences • Univariate Data Analysis • Bivariate Data Analysis • Multivariate Data Analysis • Choice of Data Analysis Techniques • Non-parametric (V.S) Parametric methods • Statistical Software Packages for Data Analysis • Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

  22. Estimating Market Demand • Expert opinion • Delphi method • Analogy • Use of quantitative techniques • Income elasticity Assessment of Country Attractiveness • Market potential / size • Business climate • Political stability / risk

  23. The Research Report • Written Report • Communication with the reader • Accuracy and completeness • Form of Report • Title page • Table of contents • Executive summary • Introduction / problem statement • Methodology • Findings • Conclusions and recommendations • Appendix • Oral Report • Use of powerpoint and graphics

  24. Conclusion • Doing research internationally is more challenging than Local • IM research is extremely important, hence the lifeblood of the International Business • Not all problems are solved using the same solution hence a need of various research approaches. AND.. • International Companies ought to invest and value of research Internationally.