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Definitions and IDs. “Cogito ergo sum” Deism. Questions and Imperatives. Describe the Enlightenment of the 18 th century, including what influenced philosophers and scientists of the 17 th and 18 th centuries.

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Presentation Transcript
definitions and ids
Definitions and IDs
  • “Cogito ergo sum”
  • Deism
questions and imperatives
Questions and Imperatives
  • Describe the Enlightenment of the 18th century, including what influenced philosophers and scientists of the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • What were the major points made by Immanuel Kant in his essay, “What is Enlightenment?”
  • Describe an enlightened despot and give examples.
  • How do people construct ideas of progress? (Class discussion)
a rebirth of philosophy
A Rebirth of Philosophy
  • Rationalism
    • Use of deductive reason to explain mankind
    • Descartes, Pascal
  • Empiricism
    • Observation and experimentation
    • Takes us into Enlightenment
    • No longer in solitude, but need to interact and debate
    • Hobbes, Locke, Kant
the enlightenment
The Enlightenment
  • Philosophes
  • “Have the courage to use your own intelligence!
  • “Enlightenment is man’s leaving his self-caused immaturity.
  • Immanuel Kant, 1724-1804
    • German philosopher
    • When faced with a moral choice…
    • All that is required for

enlightenment is

FREEDOM…to make

public use of reason

immanuel kant 1724 1804
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
  • Let’s look at one of Kant’s essays – “What is Enlightenment?”
rene descartes 1591 1650
Rene Descartes (1591-1650)
  • “Father of modern philosophy”
  • French mathematician, scientist, philosopher
  • Taught by Jesuits
  • Reliance on reason, beyond theological debate
  • Time of Scientific Revolution
  • Held back some of his own work

because of what happened

to Galileo

  • Cogito ergo sum
blaise pascal 1623 1662
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
  • French Mathematician
  • Need for God
  • Science could destroy spiritual values
thomas hobbes 1588 1671
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1671)
  • Leviathan – philosophy of political and natural science
  • Need for King’s sovereignty
  • No evil spirits…
  • fled England due to Civil wars
john locke 1632 1704
John Locke (1632-1704)
  • Disagreed with Hobbes about the monarch
  • Two Treatises of Government
  • Influenced by England’s revolution
enlightened despots
“Enlightened Despots”
  • Who? Where? When? Why?
slide12

DISCUSSION QUESTION: What effect did the Enlightenment and Scientific Revolution have on the common people? – Today’s technological revolution and the “common people?”