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Section One: Cultural Information
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  1. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities Types of American Families Family is the basic unit of society, which plays a vital role in the growth and development of children. Traditionally, it is a group of people who live together and are related by birth (blood), adoption or marriage. Nowadays many couples cohabit, which means that they live together as a family, but are not married or with children. Different families have different family structures. Types of American Families 1. Nuclear families 2. Extended families 3. Step families 4. Single parent families 5. Shared care families 6. Adoptive families 7. Foster families

  2. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 1. Nuclear families These families consist of parents and children who live together in a home separate from the rest of their family. There are many reasons for this but main ones are that parents have had to move away to get the jobs they want or moving means they can send their children to better schools or afford a better home for their family. Types of American Families 1. Nuclear families 2. Extended families 3. Step families 4. Single parent families 5. Shared care families 6. Adoptive families 7. Foster families

  3. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 2. Extended families Similar to nuclear families but extended-made bigger! They are made bigger by the addition of grand parents, aunts, uncles and cousins. They live in the same house or live very close to each other and meet up on a regular basis. As there are many people around at all times, the parents have someone to help them out whenever they need it when bringing up their children. However, this could be considered more of a burden if the parents do not feel they have chance to bring their children up the way they actually want to. Types of American Families 1. Nuclear families 2. Extended families 3. Step families 4. Single parent families 5. Shared care families 6. Adoptive families 7. Foster families

  4. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 3. Step families This is formed when a couple, at least one of whom has one or more children, marry or cohabit. This relationship may then result in more children being born; these children then become stepsiblings to one another. It is said that in America every one in ten children is part of a step family. Types of American Families 1. Nuclear families 2. Extended families 3. Step families 4. Single parent families 5. Shared care families 6. Adoptive families 7. Foster families

  5. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 4. Single parent families The vast majority of single parents are mothers who bring up their children alone. It has been said that more than one in four children are part of a single parent family in America. Families can become single parent families for a number of reasons; these can include imprisonment, death of a parent, divorce or separation, absence of a parent due to work commitments and, in some cases, single parent adoption. Types of American Families 1. Nuclear families 2. Extended families 3. Step families 4. Single parent families 5. Shared care families 6. Adoptive families 7. Foster families

  6. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 5. Shared care families The divorce or separation of parents may mean that children are forced to live in two different households so that they get the chance to spend time with both their mum and dad. This therefore means that their everyday care and general upbringing remains the responsibility of both parents equally. Types of American Families 1. Nuclear families 2. Extended families 3. Step families 4. Single parent families 5. Shared care families 6. Adoptive families 7. Foster families

  7. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 6. Adoptive families Adoption provides a permanent home for a child whose parents are unable to provide them with any stability. Adoptive parents come from a wide variety of social and cultural backgrounds, and must undergo an extensive and rigorous procedure to ensure they are suitable to adopt children. Types of American Families 1. Nuclear families 2. Extended families 3. Step families 4. Single parent families 5. Shared care families 6. Adoptive families 7. Foster families

  8. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 7. Foster families There are many different reasons why children cannot be looked after by their natural parents and are therefore placed with a foster family-this situation can be short or long depending on the child’s situation. Foster parents come in number of different shapes and sizes-they may be married, single, cohabiting with people of either sex and with or without their own children. The parents have to be thoroughly checked to make sure that they are deemed suitable careers by the social services. Types of American Families 1. Nuclear families 2. Extended families 3. Step families 4. Single parent families 5. Shared care families 6. Adoptive families 7. Foster families

  9. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 1. confront: vt. Face, meet or deal with a difficult situation or person e.g. As she left the court, she was confronted by angry crowds who tried to block her way. It’s an issue we’ll have to confront at some point, no matter how unpleasant it is. confrontationn. confrontationaladj.

  10. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 2. anguish:n. extreme pain or suffering e.g. Somehow we deal with the anguish of serious illness. Long afterwards, many would remember those two days in the first week of October with vividness and anguish. anguished adj.

  11. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 3. Brief :adj. (a) lasting only for a short time e.g.After a brief peace, fighting broke out again. Anger is a brief madness but it can do damage that lasts forever. (b) using only a few words e.g. The wisdom of nations lies in their proverbs, which are brief and pithy. To be brief, we must obtain our competitor’s plans. After a very brief historical survey we look at applications to physical operations and to chemical operations. brieflyadv.

  12. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 4. touch: vt. & vi. (a)influence sb or sth emotionally, or cause feelings of sympathy in sb e.g. He never seems to have been touched with the slightest remorse for his crimes. an appeal that touched us deeply (b) (of two or more things) be so close together that there is no space between: be in contact e.g. His hair is touched with grey. He fell asleep as soon as his head touched the pillow. touchedadj. touchingadj.

  13. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 5. laughter and tears: happiness and unhappiness e.g. He was caught between laughter and tears. Rainbow reflects our colorful life with laughter and tears.

  14. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 6.generation:n. (a) all the people of about the same age within a society or within a particular family e.g. There were at least three generations-grandparents, parents and children- at the wedding. It’s our duty to preserve the planet for future generations. (b) period of about 23 to 30 years, in which most human babies become adults and have their own children e.g. A generation ago, home computers were virtually unknown. (c) group of products or machines which are all at the same stage of development e.g. Scientists are working on developing the next generation of supercomputers.

  15. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 7.well up: start to flow e.g.Dirty water welled up out of the damaged pipe. As she read the letter tears welled up in her eyes.

  16. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 8.feel: vt. & vi. (a) experience sth physical or emotional e.g. My eyes feel really sore. I could feel the sweat trickling down my back (b) produce a particular sensation, esp through the sense of touch e.g. The water feels 30 degrees Celsius..

  17. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 9.easy : adj. (a) not difficult: needing little effort e.g. Easy come, easy go. (b) comfortable or calm: free from worry, pain, etc e.g.They both retired and went off to lead an easy life in the Bahamas. You can rest easy in the knowledge that you have done all you could.

  18. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 10.reply: (a) vi. Answer: react to an action by sb else e.g.I wrote, but she did not reply. reply to a question She replied to the threats by going to the police. (b) n. answer e.g. There were very few replies to our advertisement. In reply to their questions, she just shrugged.

  19. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 11.through one’s tears:when one is crying e.g.The girl looked up at him through her tears. She couldn’t refrain from smiling through her tears.

  20. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 12.for a moment: for a while e.g. Excuse me for a moment the situation permits of no delay for a moment. Cf:for the moment:If you do something for the moment, you are doing it now, but might do something different in the future. at the moment:now: presently e.g. Let’s carry on with what we agreed for the moment. Let’s leave the matter aside for the moment. I’m afraid she’s not here at the moment.

  21. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 13.final: adj. (a) not to be changed or reconsidered e.g. On such an important issue, we’re not in a position to give the final decision The final version owed, in fact, more to British than to American expertise. (b) last e.g.a final warning/offer the final chapter of a book n. (a) the last in a series of games, races or competitions e.g.Our team has qualified for the semi-final. (b) test taken on a subject at the end of a school year or college course e.g.The final for this class will be on May 21st finalistn.finalizevt.finallyadv.

  22. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 14. have… in common:share the same quality or interest e.g. We don’t really have much in common. They have nothing in common with each other.

  23. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 15.look into:examine the facts about a problem or situation e.g. We’re looking into the possibility of merging the two departments. Police are reported to be looking into the case.

  24. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 16.whisper: (a) vt. & vi. Speak softly e.g. She leaned over and whispered something in his ear. (b) n. soft speech produced without full voice (c) If you think of something or someone in a particular way, you have that opinion about them. e.g. What do you think of(= Do you like) my new dress? I think of him as someone who well always help me.

  25. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 17. brief:adj. (a) lasting only for a short time e.g.After a brief peace, fighting broke out again. Anger is a brief madness but it can do damage that lasts forever. (b) using only a few words e.g. The wisdom of nations lies in their proverbs, which are brief and pithy. To be brief, we must obtain our competitor’s plans. After a very brief historical survey we look at applications to physical operations and to chemical operations. brieflyadv.

  26. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 18. give in to: yield to; succumb to e.g.The government cannot be seen to give in to terrorists’ demands.

  27. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 19. instead: adv. in plave of sb or sth else e.g. If you can’t sign your name, make a cross instead. We went by train instead of by car. Instead, she thought Wang was the type of student who had the wrong idea of “cool”.

  28. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 20. lock…away: put sth in a safe place and lock the door in order that sb else cannot get it e.g.If you keep valuables in your house, lock them away somewhere safe.

  29. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 21.well up: start to flow e.g.Dirty water welled up out of the damaged pipe. As she read the letter tears welled up in her eyes.

  30. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 22.part: vt. & vi. (a) separate or cause to separate e.g.A huge rock parts the stream. To be parted from him even for two days made her sad. (b) If two people part, they leave each other, often at the end of a relationship. e.g.If we must part, I hope we can part as friends. parted: adj. separated parting: n. the state of being separated or divided adj. done while leaving or separating

  31. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 23.bring back:(a) make sb think about sth from the past e.g. We talked about our time together in Edinburgh and it really brought back memories. (b) return from somewhere with sth e.g. Please me back the saw. (c) restore or refresh e.g. to bring back youth when medicine is taken (d) make sb start talking about a particular subject again e.g. This talk of holidays brings me back to my original question, which was “What are we doing this summer?”

  32. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 24. beloved: adj. Loved very much e.g. He had concluded that his beloved career was robbing him of his life. She sorrowed over her beloved child’s death. one’s beloved: sb that one loves or with whom one has a romantic relationship e.g. He’s sending some flowers to his beloved..

  33. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 25.when it comes to one’s turn: when it is one’s turn to do sth e.g.When it comes to your turn, do your best. When it came to his turn, he stood up and declared against the proposal.

  34. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 26.reach for: stretch out your arm in order to get or touch sth e.g.He reached for the phone and knocked over a glass. He reached his hand out for the money.

  35. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 27.when it comes to one’s turn: when it is one’s turn to do sth e.g.When it comes to your turn, do your best. When it came to his turn, he stood up and declared against the proposal.

  36. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 28.reach for: stretch out your arm in order to get or touch sth e.g.He reached for the phone and knocked over a glass. He reached his hand out for the money.

  37. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 29.make up: (a) constitute; form e.g.Road accident victims make up almost a quarter of the hospital’s patients. The book is made up of a number of different articles. (b) invent sth, such as an excuse or a story, often in order to deceive e.g.My dad was always really good at making up stories. Can’t you make up an excuse? (c) reduce or replace sth, usu an amount of time or work, that has been lost e.g.We’re hoping to make up time on the return journey by not stopping at night. (d) forgive sb and be friendly with them again after an argument or disagreement e.g.They kissed and made up, as usual.

  38. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 30.mean: vt. (a) express or represent sth such as an idea, thought, or fact e.g.What do you mean by that remark? (b) used to add emphasis to what you are saying e.g.Give it back now! I mean it. (c) intend e.g.The books with large print are meant for our partially sighted readers. Do you think she meant to say 9 a.m. instead of 9 p.m.? adj. not willing to give or share things, esp money e.g.He’s too mean to buy her a ring..

  39. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities Paragraph 1 Questions: (1) How long had the author lived in that big old house? (About 10 years.) (2) How did the author like the family life of four generations living together? (He enjoyed his family life, and he thought they had lived harmoniously and experienced both happiness and sadness.) Questions Sentence Highlights

  40. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities Paragraphs 2-4 Questions: (1) What reveals the author’s reluctance to part with the old house? (He sat alone on the back porch, shedding tears.) (2) What do you know about the author’s grandfather? (He is fatherly: giving the author a pat on the shoulder; he is friendly: sitting down on the steps beside the author; he is a man with a sagacious perception: Goodbye seems too final, to cold, for friends to use.) Questions Sentence Highlights

  41. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities Paragraphs 5-9 Questions: (1)What did the author say was beautiful? (The red rosebush.) (2) Why, to Grandfather, were the roses so beautiful? What did Grandfather mean to say? (It’s the special feeling that one cherishes that makes them so beautiful. He meant what was important to a friendship was the joyful and happy times you spent together which made the friendship perpetual.) Questions Sentence Highlights

  42. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities Paragraph 10 Questions: (1) When did Grandfather plant those roses? (The day his first son was born.) (2) What did the rosebush mean to Grandfather? (A way of saying thank-you to God; something bringing back his pleasant memories.) (3) What narrative sequence does the author employ in this paragraph? (A flashback.) Questions Sentence Highlights

  43. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities Paragraph 11-12 Questions: (1) What does “a great evil” in paragraph 12 refer to? (The Fascist Nazi.) (2) How did Grandfather respond to his son’s death? (He felt rather san when he heard the news that his son died. Paragraph 12 and some previous paragraphs also imply that Grandfather later might often remember the joyful and happy times when his son was alive, instead of the last “goodbye”.) Questions Sentence Highlights

  44. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities Paragraph 13 Questions: What role does this paragraph play in the text? (This is the most important paragraph in the text, for it conveys the message of the text-refusal to give in to sadness.) Questions Sentence Highlights

  45. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities Paragraphs 14-20 Questions: (1) What did Grandfather do after retuning from the hospital? What does it imply?(He wanted to move his bed next to the window where he could see his beloved rosebush. The sight of the rosebush would remind him of the joy and happiness of life he had experienced, and accordingly make him feel nice and happy. This implies that grandfather would not give in to sadness although he was dying, that is, leaving the family forever.) Questions Sentence Highlights

  46. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities Paragraphs 14-20 Questions: (2)How did the author and his grandfather part with each other? Did they use the word “goodbye”? (They parted with each other calmly and even cheerfully, and neither said the word “goodbye”.) (3) What is the significance of the last s4entence of paragraph 20 to the whole text? (The last sentence is echoes of the message of the text mentioned in paragraph 13-never give in to sadness.) Questions Sentence Highlights

  47. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 1. One day a terrible war came, and my son, like so many sons, went away to fight a great evil. (Para.12) Paraphrase:A dreadful war broke out one day, and many young men, including my son, joined the army and went to the battlefront to fight against the Fascist Nazi. Questions Sentence Highlights

  48. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 2. All I could think of was that the last thing I said to him in this life was goodbye. (Para.12) think of: remember Paraphrase:At that time(when the bad news came), I was so sad that I could hardly remember anything. I could only remember that at the train station I said goodbye to him which was the last word I said to him in this life. Questions Sentence Highlights

  49. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 3. When you and your friend must part, I want you to reach deep within you and bring back that first hello. (Para.13) Paraphrase:When you and your friend must separate, I hope that you could try your best to remember that first friendly greeting. Questions Sentence Highlights

  50. Section One: Cultural Information Section Two: Word Study Section Three: Text Understanding Section Four: Text Appreciation Section Five: Activities 4. When he returned from several weeks in the hospital, he wanted his bed next to the window, where he could see his beloved rosebush.(Para.14) Paraphrase:He was in hospital for several weeks, and when he returned from the hospital, he wanted his bed to be placed next to the window because he wanted to see through it the rosebush which he loved very much. Questions Sentence Highlights