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An Overview of Nutrition. Terminology. nutrition the science of foods and the substances they contain food derived from plant or animal sources provide energy and nutrients used by the body for maintenance, growth, and repair diet food that one consumes

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  • nutrition
    • the science of foods and the substances they contain
  • food
    • derived from plant or animal sources
      • provide energy and nutrients used by the body for maintenance, growth, and repair
  • diet
    • food that one consumes
      • quality of ones diet affect the risk of chronic diseases
food choices
Food Choices
  • personal preference
    • taste
  • habit
    • PB and honey
  • ethnic heritage or tradition
    • eat what you grew up with
  • social interactions
    • eating with friends and family
food choices4
Food Choices
  • availability, convenience, economy
    • quick, easy, cheap??
  • positive and negative associations
    • happy vs. gross
  • emotional comfort
    • boredom, depression, anxiety
  • values
    • religious beliefs, environmental concerns, political views, moral issues
food choices5
Food Choices
  • body weight and image
  • nutrition and health benefits
    • functional foods
      • provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions
        • whole foods, fortified foods
the nutrients
The Nutrients
  • energy: the capacity to do work
  • nutrient: chemical substance obtained from food and used in the body to
    • provide energy
    • support growth
    • body maintenance
    • body repair
the nutrients7
The Nutrients
  • composition of foods
    • six classes of nutrients
      • water
      • carbohydrates
      • lipids
      • proteins
      • vitamins
      • minerals
  • nonnutrients
    • fibers
    • phytochemicals
    • pigments
    • additives
    • alcohols
    • others
the nutrients9
The Nutrients
  • chemical composition of nutrients
    • inorganic nutrients
      • minerals
      • water
    • organic nutrients
      • carbohydrates
      • lipids
      • proteins
      • vitamins
the nutrients11
The Nutrients
  • essential nutrients
    • nutrients that foods must supply
energy yielding nutrients
Energy Yielding Nutrients
  • nutrients that break down to yield energy for the body to use
    • 3 organic nutrients
      • carbohydrates
      • fat
      • protein
measuring energy
Measuring Energy
  • measured in kCalories (kilocalorie)
    • in popular literature it is abbreviated as calories
    • thus a 50 calorie carrot is actually 50 kCalories
energy from food
Energy from Food
  • amount of energy gained is dependent on the quantity of carbs, fats or protein the food contains
    • carbohydrate = 4kcal/g
    • fat = 9kcal/g
    • protein = 4 kcal/g
  • energy density is the measure of energy a food provides relative to he amount of food
    • fat has a higher energy density than either protein or carbohydrates
energy in the body
Energy in the Body
  • body uses energy yielding nutrients
  • energy from food supports every activity the body does
  • energy not used is stored
    • usually as body fat
  • not enough energy results in < energy stores and weight loss
energy yielding nutrients17
Energy Yielding Nutrients
  • in addition to providing energy they provide
    • materials for building tissue
    • regulate many activities
non energy nutrients
Non Energy Nutrients
  • water, vitamins and minerals do not yield energy
  • vitamins
    • aid in the release of energy
    • 13 essential vitamins
    • only can function if intact
non energy nutrients19
Non Energy Nutrients
  • minerals
    • found in bone, teeth, and some body fluids
    • 16 essential minerals
    • they are indestructible, but can be bound
      • interfere with body’s absorption
    • can be lost during food refining processes
non energy nutrients20
Non Energy Nutrients
  • water
    • absolutely essential for life
    • most all body activities involve water
the science of nutrition
The Science of Nutrition
  • study of nutrients and how the body handles them
  • nutritional research
    • follows the scientific method
nutritional research
Nutritional Research
  • important considerations
    • controls
    • sample size
  • placebo effects
    • blind experiments
    • double-blind experiments
dietary reference intakes
Dietary Reference Intakes
  • the “alphabet soup” of nutrition
    • DRI
    • EAR
    • RDA
    • AI
    • UL
dri dietary reference intakes
DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes
  • standards defining the amount of energy, nutrient, and physical activity for health
  • recommendations apply to healthy people
  • EAR, RDDA, AI and UI are all different nutrient values that make up the DRI
  • estimated average requirements
    • used to establish RDA
  • recommended dietary allowances
    • nutrient recommendation for everyone
      • similar age and gender
    • set at upper end of range
  • adequate intakes
    • insufficient evidence is available to determine an EAR to establish a RDA
    • based on observation or estimates


of toxicity

  • tolerable upper intake levels
    • maximum daily intake of a nutrient unlikely to cause adverse health effects



Upper Intake











energy recommendations
Energy Recommendations
  • EER
    • average, daily dietary energy (kcalories) for maintenance
    • is not generous
    • balance is important
  • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
    • composition of diet that provides adequate energy and nutrients
      • 45-65% from carbohydrates
      • 20-35% from fat
      • 10-35% from protein
using nutrient recommendations
Using Nutrient Recommendations
  • nutrient recommendations are often misunderstood and/or controversial
  • facts to help clarify
nutrition assessment
Nutrition Assessment
  • used to determine overnutrition or undernutrition
  • undernutrtion
    • deficiency of energy
      • thinness, losing muscle tissue, prone to infection
    • deficiency of nutrient
      • hair loss, depression, night blindness, skin rashes, bleeding gums
nutrition assessment33
Nutrition Assessment
  • overnutrition
    • too much energy
      • weight gain
    • overdose of a nutrient
      • hot flashes, yellowing skin, rapid heart rate
  • deficiency or excess of energy and/or nutrients over an extended period of time
  • symptoms are easy to miss
    • can be detected with proper assessment tools
nutrition assessment35
Nutrition Assessment
  • historical data
  • anthropometric data
    • height, weight
  • physical exam
  • lab tests
    • blood, urine
national nutrition surveys
National Nutrition Surveys
  • information gathered from surveys set public policy on
    • nutrition education
    • food assistance
    • food supply regulations
    • research priorities
national health goals
National Health Goals
  • Healthy People 2010
    • goals are reevaluated every 10 years and adjusted
    • nutrition is a part of the plan
diet and health
Diet and Health
  • diet is important in maintaining a healthy body
  • risk factors
    • behavior or condition that has a strong association with a disease
      • obesity and heart disease
risk factors
Risk Factors
  • tobacco
  • obesity
  • alcohol
  • firearms
  • sexual behavior
  • illicit drugs
  • physical activity
  • risk factors tend to cluster
nutrition information and misinformation
Nutrition Information and Misinformation
  • not everything on the Internet is true!!
  • not everything on the news is accurately reported!!
finding credible information
    • government health agencies
    • volunteer health agencies
    • reputable consumer groups